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Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis |
black no more essays Black Magic is Not a Myth. This essay was originally published in the London Sunday Dispatch, 2 July 1933 e.v. Black magic is not a myth. It is a totally unscientific and emotional form of magic, but it does get results of an extremely temporary nature. The recoil upon those who practice it is terrific.
It is like looking for an escape of gas with a lighted candle. As far as the search goes, there is little fear of failure! To practice black magic you have to violate every principle of science, decency, and intelligence. You must be obsessed with an insane idea of the importance of the petty object of your wretched and selfish desires. I have been accused of being a “black magician.” No more foolish statement was ever made about phd thesis, me. I despise the thing to in college? such an extent that I can hardly believe in the existence of schalkwyk phd thesis, people so debased and idiotic as to practice it.
In Paris, and Resume Parse, even in London, there are misguided people who are abusing their priceless spiritual gifts to obtain petty and temporary advantages through these practices. Jf Van Schalkwyk Phd Thesis? The “Black Mass” is a totally different matter. I could not celebrate it if I wanted to, for I am not a consecrated priest of the Christian Church. Essay Writing? The celebrant must be a priest, for the whole idea of the practice is to profane the schalkwyk, Sacrament of the Eucharist. Therefore you must believe in the truth of the cult and the efficacy of Custom essay and dissertation it reviews, its ritual. Schalkwyk? A renegade priest gathers about him a congregation of sensation-hunters and religious fanatics; then only can the ceremonies of Sample Appeal Letter Appeal Letters, profanation be of Jf van schalkwyk, extended black magical effect. There are many ways of abusing the Sacrament. One of the best known of which is the “Mass of Custom and dissertation, Saint Secaire,” the purpose of which is to cause an phd thesis, enemy to wither away. At this “mass,” always held in some secret place, preferably in a disused chapel, at midnight, the priest appears in canonical robes. But even in his robes there is some sinister change, a perversion of their symbolic sanctity.
There is an Parser Parse Resume Template, altar, but the candles are of black wax. The crucifix is fixed the head downwards. The clerk to the priest is a woman, and Jf van phd thesis, her dress, although it seems to be a church garment, is more like a costume in a prurient revue. It has been altered to Resume Parser Resume Template make it indecent. The ceremony is a parody of the orthodox Mass, with blasphemous interpolations. The priest must be careful, however, to consecrate the Host in the orthodox manner. The wine has been adulterated with magical drugs like deadly nightshade and Jf van schalkwyk, vervain, but the priest must convert it into the blood of Christ.
The dreadful basis of the Mass is that the archetypes pan, bread and wine have imprisoned the Deity. Then they are subjected to terrible profanations. This is supposed to release the powers of evil and bring them into Jf van schalkwyk alliance. (It is rather the case of the mouse trying to make a friend of the cat!) In the congregational form of the Parse, Black Mass the priest, having finished his abominations these are, quite frankly, indescribable scatters the Jf van schalkwyk, fragments of the Host on the floor, and the assistants scramble for the soiled fragments, the possession of which, they believe, will allow them to work their petty and malicious designs. My most memorable personal experience of the effects of black magic occurred when I was living in Scotland. The machinations of a degraded and outcast member of the Order caused my hounds to die, my servants to become insane. Custom And Dissertation Writing? The struggle lasted until the recoil of the current of hated caused the luckless sorcerer to collapse. The explanation of schalkwyk phd thesis, its effects is that, if you believe passionately enough in your will to do something, then power to achieve it will accrue to you. My enemies say that the celebration of the “Black Mass” was one of the Sample Letter, most innocuous of my activities in Sicily and in France. “Why was he thrown out of both those countries?” they ask. The explanation of why I left is quite simple and unsensational.
I took a villa at Cefalu in Sicily for work and Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis, play. We began the AND TEAM DYNAMICS Autosaved, day with family prayers; we occasionally celebrated a semi-religious ceremony known as the Gnostic Mass. Schalkwyk Phd Thesis? Several people who were my guests at the “abbey” made imaginative copy out of their visits. Then the Fascists came into power and some foreign newspaper correspondents were asked to leave. And so was I. There was no rough turning-out. I was treated with the greatest of courtesy. The reason I left Paris was that the authorities refused to renew my carte d’identité. No charge was made against me; and no explanation given. Somebody I had quarreled with had gone to the authorities and succeeded in making them think that something was wrong.
Spiritualism more correctly, spiritism is not a form of black magic. Through their mediumistic acts, spiritists sometimes get hold of Resume Parse Resume Template, disintegrated pieces of the mental apparatus of a man or woman who has died recently. The apparatus has lost its guiding control, the spiritual side of a man, and it can be and often is taken by elemental spirits of evil and schalkwyk, turned to any base use. Essay And Dissertation Writing Services? Spirits are playing with malicious forces. Witchcraft is a more or less solitary form of black magic. Phd Thesis? By working herself into a diabolic ecstasy the witch can achieve success in her schemes.
She is willing to sacrifice her first-born, a usual price demanded by the demon, or sell her soul. What Should I Study? And all for what? To stop her neighbour’s cows from giving milk; to send a surly enemy to a sick bed. The effect is completely ridiculous compared with the waste of schalkwyk, spiritual forces required to produce it. The true magician is above spite and venom. He tries to bring about the results for which he is working, not by sudden and disruptive interference with the Resume, existing order of things, but by slow natural processes. In theory there is no limit to the power of magic. A magician is like a mathematician; he has complete control of the symbols as long as he keeps to the rules. I have prepared the elixir of life, that magical draught which gives eternal youth. Like the Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis, touch of Midas, it is not an unmixed blessing.
I made it first when I was forty. It was done hastily and with imperfect knowledge. I took seven doses, as the first two or three had no apparent effect. The consequences were extremely violent. Resume Template? One day, without warning, I woke up to find that I had lost all my maturity. I became mentally and schalkwyk, physically a stupid stripling.
The only thing I could think of doing was to cut down trees! I was living in a cottage in New Hampshire; for fifteen hours a day I toiled at felling trees. I worked like a madman. No feat of strength was too great for me. These fantastic physical powers lasted for Parser Free Template about two months, and Jf van phd thesis, were followed by reaction. For half a year I was in a state of lassitude. I had been playing with a dangerous recipe.
Six years later I experimented again with the elixir, taking precautions to avoid such drastic results. The result was that at 47 I was as powerful an athlete as any man of 30. I still retain much of the What in college?, good effect of this experiment. My intellectual activity has not only been conserved but intensified, and I am still enjoying perfect health and energy.
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More advice about teaching ESL students (FAQ) The primary audience for this FAQ are the mainstream (i.e. non-ESL) teachers at Frankfurt International School. For this reason some of the answers are related to Jf van phd thesis the particular situation at FIS. Some of the Custom and dissertation, links (e.g. to internal documents) will not work outside of the school's intranet. Most of the advice, however, will be of use to mainstream teachers of ESL students in any school situation.
What's the most important thing I should know about the ESL students I teach? Who they are! It is essential to Jf van phd thesis know which of the The It Analytical Essay, non-native students in your class are ESL students and what level of ESL they are in. This will give you some idea how much English they know and will help you to have realistic expectations of what they will be able to understand and do in Jf van schalkwyk, your lessons. Marking the names of the essay and dissertation writing services it reviews, ESL students in your grade book, e.g. Jf Van Schalkwyk? using an asterisk and a number for their level, is a good way to identify these students. Many teachers also note down the name of the ESL teacher of each ESL student. This can facilitate the liaison that is a very important aspect of our joint efforts to support ESL children as effectively as possible. Should I correct an ESL student's grammar mistakes? Generally not. Students who answer questions in Parser Parse Template, class are working hard to show what they know or have understood and so they are usually not receptive to any feedback on the grammatical accuracy of their message.
Moreover, it would probably embarrass them to have their mistakes corrected in front of the rest of the class. There are occasions however when the content of Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis, their message is unclear because the grammar is faulty. For example, a student who says: I am here for one year may mean I have been here for one year , or I will stay here for one more year . In these circumstances, it is acceptable to ask for elucidation and to help them if they do not know the correct way to express their idea. An indirect way to give corrective feedback is to Resume Parser Parse Resume provide the student with a model answer. So, for example, if he says: Columbus find America in schalkwyk, 1492 , you could reply: Yes, you're right. That's when he discovered America . There is conflicting research evidence as to whether this kind of feedback is effective, so it's best not to overdo it. As for written work, once again it is important that feedback is concentrated on the content quality of the answer rather than on its grammatical accuracy. It is discouraging for The It Girl Analytical Essay, students who have worked hard to give a good answer to have their work covered in red ink for Jf van, mistakes that are peripheral to the main purpose of the assignment. There is The It Girl Analytical Essay, also the danger that they may get the message that surface accuracy is Jf van schalkwyk, more important than conveying ideas or showing understanding.
However, written work can generally be corrected without causing the student embarrassment in front of his or her peers, and you may well wish to draw attention to one or two of the grammatical mistakes that could interfere with understanding. Resume Parser Free? It is also not unreasonable, for schalkwyk, example, to expect the verbs in a piece of writing about a historical event to be in the past tense. Consider asking the student what kind of feedback he or she would like. Pan? Some students may welcome the chance to focus on phd thesis their grammar mistakes with a view to eradicating them in future pieces of written work. Pan? Other students, however, will just completely ignore your corrections - and you can save your precious grading time! In general, it is worth pointing out that errors are a natural part of the schalkwyk phd thesis, language learning process. Students who are made to feel that mistakes should be avoided at all costs are likely to should become inhibited and learn less quickly. Should I correct an ESL student's pronunciation mistakes? Students are usually even more sensitive about their pronunciation than their grammar, so be very careful how you deal with such problems. If possible, it is probably better to schalkwyk phd thesis pretend you have understood rather than ask the archetypes in peter, student to repeat himself 3 or 4 times or ask another student what he meant. You could always ask him again in schalkwyk, private after the lesson; and help him to a correct pronunciation of important subject-specific vocabulary.
It is very important that you do not allow other students to mock ESL students for their pronunciation or imitate their accents. I Study? And of course, you should never be tempted to do so yourself. Schalkwyk Phd Thesis? Even if you are sure that the student in essay services, question can take a joke, there may be others of the same nationality in the class who would be offended. Should I correct an ESL student's spelling mistakes? As with grammar, it may on occasion be appropriate to draw attention to spelling mistakes. Jf Van Schalkwyk? It is archetypes in peter pan, reasonable to expect students to spell correctly the keywords in an assignment. If for schalkwyk, example they are writing a homework about the water cycle, they should be corrected on mistakes in words such as evaporation, condensation etc. It may also be helpful to draw their attention to mistakes in common words that they always get wrong. The student's ESL teacher will of course be aware of the problem, and if it is Free Parse Resume Template, really severe will have suggested ways for the student to practice spelling common words correctly - e.g. by doing the spelling exercises on this site. Should I let ESL students talk in their native language in my classroom? It depends what they're talking about!
This is not intended to be a flippant answer. Most teachers will justifiably object to ESL students engaging in a general chat in their own language during lesson time. This excludes the teacher and other students, and switches the students off from the Jf van, focus of the lesson. However, there are occasions where it can be quite acceptable for a student to speak his or her own language. Stronger students can quickly explain to less proficient students what the latter have not understood or what they have to do - this frees the teacher from constantly needing to check on Sample Letter Learn Letters the progress of the Jf van, weaker student, allowing the teacher to devote enough attention to the other students in the class. It can be distracting to everyone, however, if an ESL student is trying to do a simultaneous translation of what you are saying while you are saying it. It is helpful therefore if the Girl Essay, lesson contains a number of natural breaks in which less proficient students can be helped to understand the important points you have made or what they have to do next. In general, it is worth noting how important it is for students to schalkwyk be able to discuss their work in their own language. This not only helps to archetypes in peter develop their understanding of the topic, but also serves to develop their mother tongue proficiency.
There is more on this in my advice to parents about Jf van phd thesis, what they can do to help their child at home. There is should, one more point to make: it can be very useful if you yourself speak the native language of an ESL student in your class. You can then use the language to Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis facilitate or check the student's understanding of a task or explanation. It is good for the student's self-esteem to know that you have learned and value her language. Should I encourage ESL students to What I study use their dictionaries in my lesson?
Within reason. There are times in lessons when it is essential that a student understands a word in order that what comes next makes sense. On such occasions a quick search in the dictionary can be helpful (or alternatively, a compatriot might be able to provide the Jf van, translation.) In general, however, students should be discouraged from looking up too many words in class, for two main reasons. Firstly, it does not allow them to develop the essential skill of trying to understand words in context; and secondly, it cuts them off from what you say next. Learning to use a dictionary accurately and effectively is not an easy skill, and many students take a long time finding a word, especially if they are trying to guess its spelling. They may often fail to and dissertation locate the correct translation of the hundreds of words that have more than one meaning. If the prop of using the dictionary is to be discouraged, however, it is essential that the teacher makes an effort to make his or her spoken language comprehensible. (See my advice sheet on this topic.) It is also useful if the teacher can write key words on the board so that the Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis, student can look them up later in the lesson, or at home with the parents' help. The above advice refers to the use of a dictionary while a teacher is speaking to the class. The situation is a little different if the student is working individually on an assignment, when looking up words will not distract her attention from the teacher. Once again, however, it is Learn Appeal Letters, undesirable if it is happening too often.
If you see a student overusing her dictionary you might ask her what word she was looking up and Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis, try yourself, or ask another student, to Parser Free Parse Template give her an oral explanation. Jf Van Phd Thesis? Alternatively, a compatriot could help her in her mother tongue. How can I help my ESL students learn English as well as my subject? The most important advice is: Make it comprehensible! if you do this, the Sample Appeal Learn Appeal, ESL students will not only learn your subject but English as well. Read more on the the theory of comprehensible input. Professor Krashen, who developed this theory and who in my opinion has the most coherent and convincing account of language learning, has postulated that language is acquired, both in Jf van phd thesis, the language and the mainstream classroom, when the student is motivated by the task, feels low or zero anxiety, and has had his or her self-esteem protected or enhanced.
If such conditions prevail, then there is no filter or barrier preventing the natural acquisition of language - provided that the Parse Resume Template, input is phd thesis, comprehensible, interesting and relevant. Why don't my ESL students look at me when I'm talking to The It Analytical Essay them? For some ESL students direct eye contact with a teacher is considered disrespectful and could be construed as a challenge to the teacher's authority. This is the reason that Asian students in particular may avoid looking the teacher in the eye, especially when being reprimanded. Another ESL student behaviour that is sometimes misinterpreted is the Jf van, brusqueness of their language; for example: You shut the window!, or Give me 10 Euros. In most cases this is should I study in college?, not rudeness or lack of cooperation but simply a manifestation of their limited English. Jf Van Schalkwyk Phd Thesis? It is What, a luxury of native or proficient speakers of English to express their feelings and requests politely, since politeness is usually conveyed in grammatically complex language: I'm feeling cold. Would you mind shutting the window?, I was wondering if I might possibly be able to borrow 10 Euros. How can I judge if a task or assignment will be too difficult for ESL students?
A very useful way of Jf van schalkwyk, determining the difficulty of a task is to refer to the model propounded by Professor J. Cummins. ESL teachers are also very happy to advise on the likely difficulty of an assignment for any particular student or groups of students. My advice sheet Helping ESL students understand what they read contains suggestions on how to Template assess the difficulty to ESL students of written language. What can I do to schalkwyk make it easier for the ESL students in my classes? This is an essential question and Sample Letter Appeal Letters, there are many answers. Schalkwyk Phd Thesis? For example, take a look at the list of suggestions made by the ESL students themselves in archetypes, response to the question, and check out the list of guidelines for mainstream teachers. It is vital to ensure that ESL students can make sense of what you say in class.
For this reason it is helpful if you are aware of the schalkwyk, ways in which you can improve their chances of understanding what they hear. See the advice sheet Helping ESL students understand what you say for detailed suggestions on this topic. My sheet Helping ESL students understand what they read may also prove helpful. Learn? (These two documents emphasize the importance of activating background knowledge before having students read or listen to phd thesis complex text.) You may also wish to read the suggestions below on cooperative groupings, which are very important for Custom writing services, maximizing the Jf van, ESL student's chance of producing language in the class. You can help further by explicitly teaching the study skills necessary in your subject. Appeal Letters? If you use a course book, you could show students how it is organized, where to find the phd thesis, glossary, how to make effective use of the Girl Essay, table of phd thesis, contents, chapter headings, graphics and captions etc. Consider increasing wait time; ESL students take longer than their peers, both to comprehend the question and to prepare their answer. They generally benefit from in peter, a classroom where students are called on to reply to questions rather than allowed to shout out answers.
They also feel more comfortable when lessons follow established routines; for Jf van schalkwyk, example, they are expected to Analytical Essay copy the homework from the board at the start of Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis, each lesson; the teacher always briefly previews what they will be doing that lesson; or the teacher spends the last 5 minutes of the lesson with quick-fire review questions on what was taught in that lesson. Alert students to cognates and archetypes in peter pan, other helpful mother-tongue equivalents. Asking a proficient student for the translation into Japanese or Korean of an important word you have been explaining often helps a shyer, less proficient ESL student with what she had been struggling to Jf van schalkwyk understand. Hearing different languages in the classroom sends an important message to students. Another way that you can help ESL students is to provide a model of what you are expecting them to should I study in college? do. This is especially useful when the task is to produce an extended piece of writing - but it is phd thesis, also of Parser Free Parse Resume Template, value when the assignment is a poster or oral presentation.
You could prepare your own perfect answer or you could keep pieces of work done on the same assignment by Jf van, students in other classes or previous years. It is often helpful to discuss poorer pieces of work and have students analyse why these don't meet the requirements. A final suggestion: How about asking the Appeal Letter Learn, students themselves how you could make it easier for them in your lessons? Important: ESL students need to have grade-appropriate cognitive challenges. Making things easier for ESL students in the mainstream classroom means making accommodations that help them to Jf van phd thesis do the should I study in college?, tasks that the native speakers are expected to do. It emphatically does not mean watering down the cognitive difficulty of those tasks, however well-meaning this might be. I have produced a graphic to illustrate how a task can be made achievable by schalkwyk phd thesis, ESL students without reducing its cognitive demands - namely, by expressing the task in comprehensible language and by providing appropriate assistance. I Study? (This kind of assistance is often called scaffolding.) Finally, here is an excellent overview of strategies you can use to help ESL students understand your lessons and earn from you. What can I do to help ESL students do good homework? Assume that you have followed the advice given in the answer to the previous question, and have done what you reasonably can to help ESL students understand the Jf van, new information, skills and concepts that you have been teaching them. Archetypes? You now want to set a major piece of schalkwyk, homework to deepen or assess this understanding.
What final steps can you take to optimize your students' chances of doing a good job in this homework? In response to this question it is helpful for Free Parse Resume, teachers to know the advice given to ESL students who wish to Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis do good homework, namely to follow the UDS method and ensure that they: U nderstand exactly what they have to do D o exactly what they have to do S how that they have done exactly what they had to do. Teachers can assist students in heeding this advice by allowing sufficient time during the The It Girl Analytical, class or after it for students to ask for Jf van, elucidation of the task. Resume Parser Resume Template? Of course, it is helpful to students if the task is written on the board, or on a sheet that is given to them. Students should be encouraged to take notes in their own language as the teacher is explaining what to do. Same-nationality students who have better English can be asked to explain the work to their less proficient peers, using their shared mother tongue. It is also helpful to show the schalkwyk, students the criteria by which the task will be assessed. Giving students model answers or allowing them to analyse the shortcomings of less than perfect work (done, for example, by students in the previous year's class) will also help them to understand exactly what they have to do and the form in which it should be done. Students appreciate being told the minimum length requirements, and they certainly need to be clear on due dates. ESL students often lose time at home puzzling over the requirements of a task they did not fully understand when it was set.
ESL teachers have difficulties helping students do tasks that neither they nor their students comprehend. To avoid this wasted time and frustration, mainstream teachers are well-advised to and dissertation do what they can to ensure that the students know exactly what is expected of them. Should I modify homework tasks for the ESL students in my class? It depends. In many cases you may not wish or be able to give ESL students a modified homework assignment. And even if you are able and would like to assign a less time-intensive task, you yourself may not have enough time to Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis prepare it. However, it is important to note that ESL students often need to spend two or three times as long to complete a task as it takes the native speakers in the same class. Some students at FIS regularly stay up beyond midnight to Learn Appeal get all their homework done and Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis, rarely have the time to recharge their batteries.
So ESL students will certainly appreciate any contribution you make to the reduction of their total workload. There are various ways that you can do this. Firstly, it goes without saying that homework should only be assigned if there is a clear rationale behind it. But even if the The It Analytical Essay, homework fulfils a particular learning purpose, you may find it possible to allow ESL students to skip it on occasion or to do it when their homework schedule is currently not so full. Secondly, you may find be able to reduce the scope of the Jf van schalkwyk, task; for example, by Custom writing services it reviews, decreasing the word count of schalkwyk, a piece of should I study, writing, the minimum length of a science presentation, or the number of questions expected to be done in a mathematics homework. Thirdly, you could replace a long, linguistically-demanding reading homework text with a shorter, less complex one on the same subject.
There are various online resources that provide versions of the same content with varying length and linguistic complexity. Jf Van Schalkwyk Phd Thesis? [An example is Newsela.] And if you are assigning Google research, you could show students how to filter the results by reading level to ensure that they are not attempting texts that will clearly be beyond them. Finally, you could determine how long it would be likely to take the average native-speaker in your class to complete the DEFININATION OF TEAM DYNAMICS, assignment and Jf van phd thesis, tell the ESL students to work on the assignment for that length of time, then stop. ESL teachers at FIS are very flexible about What I study in college?, allowing extra time in ESL lessons for schalkwyk, students to complete other subject work that they had no time to Custom essay and dissertation writing finish at schalkwyk phd thesis home, or to start the work in class and Resume Parser Resume, therefore need to spend less time on it later that evening. If you feel that any given homework assignment is likely to be demanding and thus time-consuming, or if you are not sure if it will be, you are recommended to contact the students' ESL teacher. He or she will be able to advise on the demands of the task, and will be happy to suggest - and in most cases to prepare - a modified task. It is Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis, clear that ESL students need to Resume Parse Template spend longer on homework than native-speakers, and may occasionally need to stay up very late to complete it. But it is important that this does not happen regularly. Any excessive time spent doing homework eats into Jf van schalkwyk, the time when they should be relaxing, pursuing their hobbies, or just reading for pleasure.
Students who are tired and stressed because of archetypes, homework demands and lack of opportunities to switch off will not be fresh and Jf van phd thesis, productive in Custom essay services it reviews, the classroom, and may well become sick. Why don't my ESL students ask for help in class? It is notable how often mainstream teachers comment that the students in the class who generally need the most help, namely the ESL students, are the ones least likely to ask for it. There are various reasons why this is the case. Firstly, the ESL students may simply not feel that their proficiency in English is schalkwyk, good enough for Sample Appeal Learn Appeal, them to phd thesis ask the right questions or understand the teacher's answers.
Furthermore, ESL students may feel embarrassed to show their lack of understanding in front of the rest of the class; better to say nothing than have the other students think that you are slow or stupid. Archetypes? ESL students who were proud of Jf van schalkwyk, their achievements in What should, their previous home-country school may feel it demeaning to now be so reliant on the teacher, and prefer to keep face rather than expose their helplessness. It is Jf van, possible, finally, that some ESL students believe that by asking many questions or frequently asking for help, they somehow convey the the idea that the teacher has not done a good enough job in should I study in college?, teaching them. The advice to the teacher with ESL students in Jf van, the class is to structure lessons so that there is some time when students are working individually or in small groups. This allows the student to ask questions or for help without being exposed to the attention and possible derision of the full class. It also allows the teacher to approach students suspected of struggling and discreetly offer help. Teachers could also make it clear to their ESL students that they are generally available to answer student questions after class or during break and lunch. For a more detailed analysis of the reasons why Asian students at FIS may be reluctant to ask for help, see The Quiet Girls (Greenwood, Cathleen F.. The Quiet Girls . The English Journal 86.6 (1997): 82-86. Custom? Web.).
What advice can I give to ESL parents about how to help in my subject? The best way that parents can help at home is to discuss with their child, in their own language, the work in Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis, progress. There is more detailed advice on this on the parents' pages of this website. It would be useful to and dissertation writing refer parents to these pages when you call them or meet them to talk about their child's progress. Additionally, you could reinforce the Jf van, constant message we ESL teachers give students and parents about the importance of Sample Letter Learn, extensive reading in English - particularly of non-fiction texts. As Cummins points out: If ELL (ESL) students are not reading extensively and phd thesis, understanding what they read, they have little hope of bridging the gap in academic language proficiency between themselves and native speakers of English. Academic Language Learning, Transformative Pedagogy, and Information Technology: Towards a Critical Balance , Cummins, J. (2001) TESOL Quarterly, Vol 34, No. 3. An ESL student is struggling in my lessons? What is the best way I can help her?
The best thing to do is to alert the ESL teacher so that a special action plan can be worked out. You may also wish to tell the parents what they can do to help. See my answer to the previous question. Before suggesting private tuition, it is recommended that you contact the ESL teacher. See the newsletter article about private tuition if you want to read the advice we give to ESL parents when they ask if this is necessary for their child. An ESL student is doing badly in my tests. Why is this? If a student does poorly in one of Resume Parse Resume Template, your tests, it is helpful to schalkwyk phd thesis analyse with her the possible reasons. These could be any of the following (or a combination of should in college?, them): She never did (or understood) the work in the first place She did and understood the schalkwyk, work, but she didn't study for the test She understood the work and studied for the test, but she didn't understand the question(s) She understood the questions, but didn't know how to should in college? answer She understood the schalkwyk phd thesis, questions and knew how to answer in her native language, but couldn't answer in English She (thought she) knew how to answer in English but she didn't give the DEFININATION WORK DYNAMICS Autosaved, right answer or she didn't give the Jf van schalkwyk, full answer She didn't check her work carefully before turning in the test paper.
Obviously, a child who doesn't work hard through the term, or who lacks good test-preparation and test-taking strategies, will struggle to do well in tests, and these issues should be addressed by Essay, the teacher. The other reasons listed above, however, are more to do with language ability, and Jf van phd thesis, you may wish to adopt a flexible response in order to in peter help the ESL student show what she has learned and understood. For example, you may wish to schalkwyk phd thesis prepare an ESL version of the test. Alternatively, you could make sure you are on hand during the test to explain what the questions mean. Or you could allow the student to write part of an answer in her own language and then explain it to you or have it translated after the test. ESL students usually need more time than their native-speaking peers to complete the test. It takes the I study, pressure off them a little if they know they will have the chance to continue into break or finish off in phd thesis, the ESL lesson. Of course, it is very important that the language of the test questions and tasks is unambiguous, so the student can quickly understand what she has to Parser do. [See my advice on how to make tests and worksheets comprehensible.] One of my ESL student's written work contains large chunks of text that she has copied from other sources? What should I do? Plagiarism is quite common among ESL students and can have many causes.
Please contact the child's ESL teacher if the problem persists despite implementing some of the advice on how to deal with it. What is the best way to integrate ESL students into my lessons? It is helpful if you know a little about the phd thesis, ESL students' backgrounds and interests, since this will enable you to make connections to their personal lives. At the ESL placement interview the ESL teacher finds out this information and What, then sends it out to schalkwyk phd thesis all concerned by e-mail. Little things can be important, such as spelling the archetypes in peter pan, child's name correctly and Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis, learning how to pronounce it with some accuracy. Should In College?? It is also helpful in class to seat ESL students with native-speakers who are sympathetic and encouraging. Schalkwyk Phd Thesis? You can also devise group activities in which the ESL student's contribution is essential to the successful completion of the essay services, task. (See next question!) On a more general level, it is schalkwyk, useful if the OF TEAM AND TEAM Autosaved, culture and history of the phd thesis, student can be incorporated into lessons. Parse Resume Template? [More] It is important that students feel teachers respect their cultures as much as the schalkwyk, dominant cultures of the Appeal Letter Learn, school. (The ESL department has a very useful set of materials of the different countries of the schalkwyk phd thesis, world, called Culturegrams.
There is also another set in the school library.) Cummins (1996) has an excellent explanation of the importance of integrating ESL students' cultures and The It Analytical Essay, background experiences into your lessons, thereby validating their personalities and identities: .. when students' language, culture and experience are ignored or excluded in classroom interactions, students are immediately starting from a disadvantage. Everything they have learned about life and the world up to this point is dismissed as irrelevant to school learning; there are few points of connection to curriculum materials or instruction and so the students are expected to Jf van schalkwyk learn in an experiential vacuum. Students' silence and Resume Parser Parse, non-participation under these conditions have frequently been interpreted as lack of academic ability or effort, and teachers' interactions with students have reflected a pattern of low expectations which have become self-fulfilling. Cummins J (1996) Negotiating Identities: Education for Empowerment in a Diverse Society Ontario CA California Association for Bilingual Education. Two simple examples of including the non-native speaker's culture and previous educational experience: In the mainstream English class where Romeo and Juliet is schalkwyk phd thesis, being studied, the teacher could ask students if there are similarly celebrated stories of thwarted love in the literatures of their cultures. Sample Appeal Letter? In math class the teacher could ask non-native speakers how they have learned to do a particular operation, e.g. the division of one fraction by another.
How do cooperative activities benefit ESL students? An excellent way of integrating ESL students into your class is via cooperative activities. Researchers have found that language learning takes place most effectively when learners are engaged in interesting tasks that allow plenty of meaningful interaction with sympathetic native speakers. However, it is not enough to just put the ESL student with 2 or 3 others and hope for the best. If this happens, there is Jf van phd thesis, a danger that the ESL student will take on a peripheral role - or have it forced on her. Therefore, it is most beneficial if the group activity is so structured that the outcome is pan, dependent on the contributions of ALL the group members.
As an example, consider the topic of Jf van, pollution. First each member of each group chooses or is allocated a sub-topic. Those having the same sub-topic, say river pollution, meet together to discuss and research that sub-topic. The students then return to their original groups where they report on what they learned in the sub-topic groups. Group members then discuss how to include this information in DEFININATION WORK AND TEAM DYNAMICS Autosaved, their final report or presentation. Using this method, the contribution of each group member is critical to schalkwyk phd thesis the final outcome. To provide extra support to OF TEAM DYNAMICS Autosaved ESL students, you could arrange it so that they are given an schalkwyk, easier sub-topic or task, or that the sub-topic group they go to contains a same nationality peer. In summary, it can be said that pair or group work is important for ESL students because it gives them the chance to express their ideas and opinions or ask questions (of the Sample Appeal Letter Learn Letters, teacher or other group members) on a smaller stage than in front of the whole class. It also gives the teacher a much better chance to offer individual and unobtrusive help.
There is a more extensive discussion in the following article, which also contains a wealth of other useful information: Strategies for Involving LEP Students in the Mainstream Classroom. [Further information about cooperative grouping can be found in: Second Language Students in schalkwyk phd thesis, Mainstream Classrooms , Sears, C. (1998) Multilingual Matters. I have a copy of this book in my room if you would like to borrow it.] Where can I find information about the language, culture and history of the countries of my ESL students? In my room I have a comprehensive set of materials called Culturegrams. These contain information about every country in the world on AND TEAM DYNAMICS Autosaved topics such as: history, language, customs, food, holidays, education system, lifestyle, recreation, and many more. There is schalkwyk, a further set of these materials in the library. [Dr. Else Hamayan has devised an interesting graphic that makes it clear there is more to culture difference than the obvious elements of music, food and dress.] I have a student in my class who never says a word.
Should I make him speak? It is rarely productive to try and cajole a reluctant beginner into in peter pan, answering questions in class. There is a well-attested silent period that some ESL students go through in which they are not prepared to Jf van schalkwyk volunteer any spoken information. In most cases however these students are learning and will emerge from their silent cocoon some time later with a surprising ability to express themselves orally. Here is should I study in college?, what Professor Krashen has to say about the silent period: Very typically, children in a new country, faced with a new language, are silent for schalkwyk phd thesis, a long period of time, their output being limited to a set number of memorized phrases and sentences that they hear frequently and whose meaning they do not understand completely. [. ] The child, during this time, is simply building up competence by listening, via comprehensible input.
His first words in the second language are not the beginning of his second-language acquisition; rather, they are the The It Essay, result of the comprehensible input he has received over the previous months. Krashen states that adults are not usually allowed a silent period in language classes, a condition that makes many language students very anxious about Jf van, foreign-language study. Krashen, S. 1985 The Input Hypothesis: Issues and should in college?, Implications (Longman) The issue is more complicated for silent students who are in their second or subsequent years at the school. They may in fact desire the opportunity to participate orally, but do not yet have the language processing skills to quickly understand the question and formulate their answer in English. They are disadvantaged therefore in classes with rapid teacher-student interchanges, particularly where the students are not called on schalkwyk but allowed to respond at will. If teachers allow sufficient processing time, then ESL students may feel comfortable in raising their hand to answer. If they still remain silent, it may be reasonable for the teacher to DEFININATION OF TEAM DYNAMICS call on the student directly - particularly if it is a closed question with a short answer†.
But in general this should be done only if it is believed that the student will have a correct answer, and Jf van, not if he or she is generally shy or lacking in confidence. So, there is not one rule that fits all students. Shy students will feel very stressed in class if they believe that the teacher may call on them at any time. Girl Analytical? Conversely, some students may feel the teacher has no confidence in Jf van phd thesis, them if they are never called on. A final point: if the OF TEAM WORK, course includes opportunities for Jf van, cooperative activities then the student will be able to communicate orally in a setting much less threatening than in What should I study in college?, front of the whole class. † There is more about question techniques in these two video I made for Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis, FIS students preparing to teach ESL students in the Kalahari: questions in theory - questions in practice. * Teachers wishing to review the research on DEFININATION OF TEAM Autosaved the issue of schalkwyk, silent students are recommended to read the following article: Priviliging of Speech in EAP and Mainstream University Classrooms: A Critical Evaluation of Participation Ellwood, C. and Nakane, I. TESOL Quarterly 43/2 2009. How should I assess the content knowledge, understanding and skills of my ESL students?
There is a detailed answer to this question elsewhere on this site. In short, assessments, both formative and summative, will often need modifying in order to make them fair and reliable ways for ESL students to demonstrate knowledge and skills in your subject. Other accommodations, such as allowing extra time to complete the assessment, may be necessary. Students whose English proficiency is as yet limited may need different assessments altogether than the rest of the class. ESL teachers can advise on archetypes in peter pan the language demands of schalkwyk phd thesis, a given task, and What I study in college?, suggest modifications and accommodations to make it a fairer and more accessible way for ESL students to demonstrate content knowledge and skills. How should I grade my ESL students? This is a complex issue, and Jf van phd thesis, closely related to Girl Analytical the previous question: How should I assess my ESL students? In general, students who have reached a certain level of English proficiency (at FIS this means students in ESL2, Advanced or Transitional classes) should be assessed and graded according to the same criteria as the schalkwyk, other students in the class.
This may mean that for some students their grades are low at first, but nevertheless it is important that ESL students, together with their parents and Sample Learn Appeal Letters, their ESL teacher get accurate feedback on the standards they are reaching in their mainstream classes. Jf Van? Such a grading policy also helps the ESL teacher to determine at the end of the What should, year if the student is in need of further support in Jf van schalkwyk, the following year. (It can be difficult to recommend that a child continues in ESL if his grades in the other subjects have been artificially inflated. DEFININATION OF TEAM WORK DYNAMICS Autosaved? ) Within the above guidelines, however, it is still possible to treat ESL students in a way that is appropriate to Jf van schalkwyk their particular status and needs. Sympathetic is a useful term to describe this special treatment of ESL students in terms of grading and assessment. It means for example that students are given credit for demonstrating understanding even if their ability to express their understanding in clear and accurate English is limited. It means that they are not graded down for grammar and What should I study in college?, spelling mistakes (unless these are an integral and clearly stated part of the assignment.) It means further that students have the chance to give an oral explanation of Jf van schalkwyk, answers that they were not able to write down very clearly. It also means that they may be allowed the chance to redo homework or retake tests. Some FIS students of very limited English proficiency (this means students in ESL1 or Intermediate classes) should be graded according to the policy set out in the document Report card grades for ESL students. My class contains a high proportion of ESL students - will this have a negative effect? It need not, since many of the strategies which are good for ESL students are good for Sample Learn Letters, the others, too. This is Jf van schalkwyk, a situation where the Custom essay and dissertation services it reviews, internal grouping of students takes on greater importance.
It is generally helpful if ESL students can be paired or grouped with others from a different language background, although it can be useful if beginners can also have the Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis, chance to Sample Learn Letters be helped in phd thesis, their own language. In general, the Sample Appeal Letter Learn, advice is to teach to the native speakers in the class so that the cognitive demand on students is not compromised. There is an interesting discussion of the Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis, dangers of reducing the cognitive level in the classroom in Vol. 47/1 of the English Language Teaching (ELT) Journal. (Embarrassment and hygiene in the classroom Mackay, R.) The ESL department holds a copy of should I study, this article if you wish to read it. You may also wish to read my answer to parents who ask a similar question. How should I adapt the Jf van phd thesis, work I give to should I study in college? the ESL students in my class? Much of the work that is set in the mainstream (whether to do in class or at home) takes the ESL students much longer to accomplish than the phd thesis, native-English speakers. Of course, mainstream teachers are aware of this and may attempt to adapt the tasks that the ESL students have to do. This concern for ESL students is admirable, but it carries with it two dangers. The first danger is that the cognitive demands of the task may be reduced, or that the task may be replaced by different, simpler task. Should In College?? ESL students can certainly be helped by making the language of tasks easier to understand, but they have the same cognitive abilities as the other students and should be required to use them in the completion of the same assignments.
The second danger is that the teacher ends up spending so long on regular adaptation of materials for ESL students that he or she does not have the time or energy to devote to phd thesis preparing engaging and Custom essay and dissertation services it reviews, instructive lessons for the class as a whole. A solution to the dilemma of ensuring that ESL students are cognitively challenged but do not end up working twice or three times as long on an assignment as a native-speaker is to reduce the amount of work they have to do. For example, instead of requiring them to do 20 word problems in mathematics unit, permit them to schalkwyk phd thesis do 12. Consider a mainstream English assignment as a further example - book review. Instead of requiring a 500 word report, allow the less proficient ESL students to OF TEAM WORK AND TEAM write 400 words. Do not, on the other hand, permit them to write only about plot and not about theme or mood, since this reduces the cognitive challenge of the task. The ESL department is very happy to advise on the modification of materials to make them linguistically more accessible to schalkwyk ESL students. What is the Sample Appeal Learn Appeal Letters, best way to keep in contact with the Jf van, ESL teacher? How the liaison takes place is DEFININATION WORK AND TEAM Autosaved, a matter for schalkwyk, each subject teacher to determine in consultation with the ESL teacher.
Some prefer to have a brief regular meeting to discuss work in progress and Free Parse Resume Template, students of concern; while other find it easier to keep in contact by e-mail. See the sheet of general information about how ESL teachers can help, containing a list of times that they are free to discuss with you or visit one of your classes. How are ESL students placed at FIS? The decision about the initial placement of a student is Jf van, made after the student has been interviewed by an ESL teacher who assesses the linguistic competence of the student in should, the major language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. Jf Van Schalkwyk? (The reading test generally consists of a short story taken from the appropriate grade level literature anthology.) The student's educational and I study in college?, language background is also taken into schalkwyk, account. In cases where a student falls between two levels, the wishes of the parents and/or the student are taken into Resume Parser Free Template, account.
Subsequent placement depends on the student's progress in English as assessed against the ESL objectives. Placement changes can take place at any time, although they are generally not considered desirable in the last two months of the school year. A majority of changes take place between one school year and the next. The placement decision does not only phd thesis depend on the child's linguistic proficiency, as measured against ESL course objectives, but on such factors as the Resume Template, child's nationality, motivation and ability to phd thesis work independently. An essential part of the decision-making process is the continuing discussion with the services it reviews, child's subject teachers about Jf van, her progress in those subjects, including the level and quality of her participation in Sample Appeal Learn Appeal, all of the class activities, her results in tests, the quality of her homework etc. Schalkwyk Phd Thesis? The child's longer-term academic plans are often also taken into consideration after discussions with the The It Girl Analytical, parents. How can I identify an ESL child who has learning difficulties?
Some of the indicators of a learning disability that are exhibited by an English native speaker are also shown by phd thesis, ESL students in the first stage of their English language development. These indicators include difficulty in following oral instructions, poor eye tracking when reading, inconsistent spelling, limited attention span, avoidance of Resume, eye contact, etc. Jf Van Schalkwyk? The crucial difference is that the problems experienced by the learning-disabled native speaker are for the most part permanent, whereas ESL students display such behaviours for Sample Letter Learn Appeal, a temporary period only. There are significant variations in the duration of Jf van schalkwyk, this temporary period for ESL students. It is important, therefore, that mainstream teachers are aware that a normal (i.e. non-learning disabled) ESL student may continue to exhibit 'learning-disabled behaviours' for a long initial period. Such students should not be prematurely labelled as having a learning problem when in fact they simply have a temporary language or acculturation problem. Nevertheless, every so often we have an The It Girl Essay, ESL student who doesn't make the progress expected of schalkwyk, him or her, even allowing for OF TEAM WORK AND TEAM, the large variations in the speed at which English language proficiency develops. In most cases such a student will have been identified by an ESL teacher, and the 'learning-disabled specialist' will have been contacted in Jf van schalkwyk, order to undertake a joint diagnosis. This diagnosis will usually include testing in the child's mother tongue.
If the child does indeed turn out to have learning problems, then some kind of additional support is offered. This may, at Frankfurt International School, involve the archetypes, replacement of the child's German class with lessons in Learning Support/Academic Workshop. If you suspect that an ESL student's difficulties in your class are the result of more than a simple lack of English language proficiency, please collect evidence and schalkwyk, contact the child's ESL teacher. It is helpful for the ESL teacher to know, specifically, the types of task that cause the DEFININATION OF TEAM AND TEAM DYNAMICS, student problems and the kinds of atypical behaviour that the student exhibits. The ESL program manual of the US Department of Defence contains excellent, detailed information and advice on how to Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis diagnose and respond to the learning disabilities of ESL students. For a further detailed discussion of the in peter pan, issue, refer to the following article, a copy of which is available in room 289: Special Education Needs of Second Language Learners Cloud, Nancy. (1994). In F. Genesee (Ed), Educating Second Language Children (pp.243-277). New York: Cambridge University Press.
The topic is given comprehensive coverage in schalkwyk phd thesis, this more recent work by Hamayan: Special Education Considerations for English Language Learners: Delivering a Continuum of Services. (Caslon, 2007). How can I communicate effectively with ESL parents? There may be many occasions in the school year when you will have contact with ESL parents; for example at Resume Free Template the International Meal or during Back to School Night or Open House. In particular you may need to Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis talk to OF TEAM WORK AND TEAM DYNAMICS Autosaved them on the phone or during parent conferences to discuss their child's progress. In all of the dealings with parents, it is important to modulate your language in such a way that it can be more easily understood.
Of course this does mean not patronising them by speaking more loudly or excessively slowly, or using baby language. What it does mean is that you may have to repeat or rephrase the important parts of Jf van schalkwyk, your message. You should also try to avoid most of the idioms and colloquialisms that are typical of Girl, natural everyday language between native speakers. Schalkwyk Phd Thesis? Telling a parent that her daughter takes a long time to cotton on and that she needs to pull her socks up is likely to be met by a confused stare! You should be aware too that much of the school jargon that we use without thinking about it will be inaccessible to ESL parents. For example, it is unrealistic to expect them to Sample Appeal Letter Appeal Letters know what you mean when you talk about authentic assessment or Learning Center . (More on school jargon.) You also need to Jf van be careful with euphemisms. While they may be appropriate and Resume, expected by native-English speaking parents, your message may not be understood by ESL parents. To tell a Korean mother that her son does not take full advantage of the learning opportunities offered to him will probably not communicate effectively what you are trying to telling her. Jf Van Phd Thesis? It is often better to say gently something like: Your son is a little bit lazy in lessons , and then give specific examples of how he could participate more. (More on euphemisms) You need be a little careful, however, since some parents may regard the OF TEAM WORK AND TEAM DYNAMICS Autosaved, difficulties their child is having as reflecting poorly on themselves and their family as a whole. You should also know that many ESL parents will feel very uncomfortable if they think that other parents or students can hear what you are saying about their child.
For this reason, you are strongly recommended to close the door of the room in which you are having the meeting or conference with the parents. In general it is important that parents are not left feeling frustrated, confused or embarrassed after meeting with you. Making ESL parents feel valued and welcomed in our school and schalkwyk, involving them in the education of their child is an essential aspect of helping the child to fulfil his or her potential. What do I need to know about ESL students and culture shock? Some ESL students at FIS suffer from physical, emotional or behavioural complaints that are caused by culture shock. The shock can be caused by difficulties in adjusting to Germany and German culture. It is more likely however to be the result of trying to Custom essay writing cope with the demands of a very different school system from the one they have left behind. The effects of culture shock - or to be more precise, school shock - are described in some detail in my article to parents elsewhere on this site.
My intention here is to make mainstream teachers aware of schalkwyk, some of the teaching practices at FIS that may be unfamiliar and stressful to in peter pan ESL students. Schalkwyk Phd Thesis? Of course it is not suggested that colleagues change their teaching methodologies to avoid all possibility of discomfiting ESL students. But an awareness of the points below will often be sufficient to prevent teachers drawing the wrong conclusions about the behaviour and attitude of the in peter pan, ESL students in their classes. It can help to alleviate stress if ESL students feel that the Jf van phd thesis, teacher is knowledgeable about and sympathetic to their difficulties. Teachers can also help adjustment to the new culture by reinforcing the essay, student's pride in Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis, his own culture. (More on this)
Students may be used to acquiring a large number of facts by rote; and Sample Appeal, unused to discovery learning, analysis or critical thinking as practised at Jf van FIS. The It Analytical? Students may feel threatened by the amount of participation expected of them in class, preferring to remain silent for fear of ?showing off? or losing face by giving the wrong answer. They may also perceive a wrong answer as causing the teacher to schalkwyk phd thesis lose face and, for essay it reviews, the same reason, feel uncomfortable with the idea of phd thesis, asking questions or for help. Students may not wish to Girl share opinions or beliefs, regarding them as private. Students may be severely embarrassed if reprimanded or excessively praised in front of others. Schalkwyk Phd Thesis? Students may be unused to mixed classes or being taught by teachers of the opposite sex. In Peter Pan? Students may find it difficult to come to terms with the open and friendly relations between teachers and students. Jf Van Schalkwyk Phd Thesis? They may be uncomfortable with the amount of noise in the classroom. Students may be uncomfortable with some expectations regarding teacher-student behaviour (e.g. looking the teacher in essay and dissertation writing services, the eye when being spoken to).
Students may be from a very competitive school system and unused to Jf van working co-operatively with other students. Conversely, they may come from an educational background in Sample Learn Appeal Letters, which grades do not have the importance to students, parents and teachers that they do at our school. Students may believe that having fun in the classroom is incompatible with learning. Students may feel uncomfortable at being involved in deciding on learning goals and how they are to be assessed, considering it to be the teacher?s job. Of course not all ESL students come from schalkwyk phd thesis, countries whose educational culture is different in the ways listed above.
And most of those who do will not experience more than a temporary discomfort on joining our school. What is common to all ESL students, however, and The It Girl Analytical, probably the main cause of school shock, is the huge mental effort required to Jf van work for more than 8 hours a day learning new content in Resume Parser Free, a foreign language. For this reason it is clear that students will benefit directly from any efforts by teachers to make the Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis, classroom language and homework tasks as comprehensible as possible. Ways to do this are described in the following articles: How should I reply if a student or her parents asks me how she can improve her English? Many ESL students are very motivated to learn English as quickly as possible. They spend a lot of extra time at home doing language work of one type or another, and often their parents pay for private tuition. Unfortunately, in more than a few cases, this time and money could be better spent.
The single best thing that students can do at essay and dissertation it reviews home to improve their English is to schalkwyk phd thesis read extensively in the language. Analytical Essay? It is the Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis, best thing because it allows students to engage in an activity that most enjoy - particularly if they are able to choose their own reading material . And it is the best thing because it has been shown* that extensive reading not only improves students' reading skills - as is to writing be expected - but also has a marked effect on other aspects of schalkwyk phd thesis, their language too, in particular on Learn Appeal Letters their writing ability. There is also plenty of research evidence to show that learners of English who simultaneously maintain and develop their proficiency in the mother tongue do better in school. For this reason parents can be advised on the benefits of their child reading good literature or non-fiction in their native language too. So if you are asked the Jf van, question above, please advise students and parents on the considerable benefits of Parser, reading in both languages.
At the same time, however, it would be good to Jf van schalkwyk suggest that they contact the archetypes in peter pan, ESL teacher for more specific advice on the kinds and levels of reading in English that the child should be doing, because this will play a significant part in the success of any such program. * See: Extensive reading and the development of language skills , Hafiz, F. Tudor, I. Jf Van Schalkwyk? (1989) in ELT Journal 43/1. What do students do in ESL lessons? As ESL teachers at FIS we have two concerns; one immediate and daily, and the other long-term. The immediate concern is to help students do assignments that will satisfy them and their subject teachers. The long-term concern is to Appeal help the students learn enough English that they can function successfully in the mainstream without ESL support.
The amount of time that is devoted to each of these concerns depends on the particular group of students and Jf van phd thesis, the time of year. So, for DEFININATION OF TEAM AND TEAM DYNAMICS, example, more time is spent on Jf van other subject work with beginning students than with more advanced students. Students generally become more independent as the year progresses, so more time is devoted to Resume Parser Free Parse Resume Template general language and skills development towards the phd thesis, end of the year than at the beginning. Beginning ESL students tend to lose their voice and their personality when they enter the mainstream classroom in the first few months at FIS. They may believe themselves to be or even be made to feel stupid.
For this reason we incorporate into our teaching activities that allow students to demonstrate their intelligence, their imagination and creativity, their linguistic knowledge (of their own language) and their personality. Cummins (ECIS-ESL Rome 2005 conference presentation) has spoken convincingly of how the above can be done via cooperative work on what he calls identity texts . There are examples of identity texts in the Dual Language Showcase. Can you recommend another website for mainstream teachers of ESL students? Yes! The ESOL Online website of the New Zealand Ministry of Education contains a wealth of information, advice and useful links for teachers of ESL students of all ages.
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Write a resume that will land you a programming job. Justin James lays out what he sees on schalkwyk, a developer's resume that makes him say wow!. and what makes him say ugh! I usually read 5 - 20 resumes each week. Both my boss and I are extremely busy, so it's important that a programmer's resume grab our attention quickly by providing the right mix of necessary information with something that makes that person stand out writing, from the pack. I've been involved with our hiring process for more than six months, so I feel fairly confident that I can distill what it takes for schalkwyk, a programming resume to Resume Parser Free, get me to say, Let's arrange an interview. Jf Van! Here are my tips for writing and organizing a pitch perfect programming resume. Keep in mind: I am not every hiring manager; also, all resumes go through our recruiters and HR department first. Moreover, regular readers know that some of my ideas fall a touch outside the norm when it comes to what makes a good developer. Reading the in-depth details of how you used mainstream skill XYZ to Appeal Appeal Letters, accomplish typical task ABC is not at the top of Jf van, my agenda.
I want to see your skills up front, so I don't need to go trolling through your resume to see if you meet my minimum needs. Skip the should I study in college? summary and maybe even the objective. Those summaries are a waste of my time. It is going to say something like seasoned IT pro with great communication skills or proven veteran with 10 years of programming experience. How do I know this? Because they all say this.
Skip it, please. The objective is a slightly different story; it is useful only if it informs the interviewer about Jf van schalkwyk something that the DEFININATION OF TEAM DYNAMICS skills and experience does not. The objective's relevance to me is largely a function of whether you wish to keep doing what you have been doing. If I see you have been programming — particularly at Jf van schalkwyk the data access layer and the business object layer — and there is archetypes in peter pan no objective, I am going to assume that you are looking for more of the same with a different employer or location. If you want to do more of that work and put an objective, you are wasting space. If you are looking for a change of pace — like getting more into schalkwyk, the presentation layer or heading towards a management track — it's important to state that in your resume. Otherwise, we may discover during the interview that you are not interested in what we have to offer.
Some IT hiring managers put a huge emphasis on certain educations but I do not. I always want you to list your school and your major, but I will only ask you about your education if there is The It Girl Analytical something unusual or intriguing. For instance, a candidate with a Computer Science degree from phd thesis MIT or with a PhD in Organic Chemistry will draw my eye because these degrees show a level of high intelligence. Custom Essay And Dissertation It Reviews! On the flipside, an AA in basket weaving or a lack of a degree will not count against Jf van phd thesis you. In most cases, I am not even curious about your education until I have already made up my mind. And Dissertation! This includes certifications — MCSEs and Jf van schalkwyk, CCNAs do not impress me that much at this point.
They matter to some folks, and in peter, they do not hurt you in my opinion, but I will only phd thesis, take that certification into account if all else is equal. Even if my project is a run-of-the-mill Web-based, data driven application (which it is not), I still want to see that you are more than someone with 10 years of experience writing run-of-the-mill Web-based, data driven applications. Appeal Learn Appeal Letters! For example, compare these two items: East Coast Power - Programmer 1999 - 2005. Wrote VB applications to control machinery. Jf Van Phd Thesis! The hardware interface was handled in a COM library that was written by DEFININATION OF TEAM DYNAMICS another team. Application was robust and Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis, reliable. Wrote Web-based tool to writing it reviews, track system faults.
Created Web service to phd thesis, allow partners to consume portions of the database. East Coast Power - Programmer 1999 - 2005. Wrote VB applications to control nuclear reactor. Real-time control and monitoring of archetypes, systems handling 10,000 unique data inputs per second. Wrote advanced algorithms in C# to detect imminent system failure, which were used within a Web-based application. Created Web service in C# to allow partners to access data in a secure, reliable, and responsive manner; typical data set was 1,000,000 rows and concurrency challenges needed to be overcome at the database and application layers. See the difference? Control machinery does not help me much — you could have been working on the elevator system for all I know. Jf Van Schalkwyk Phd Thesis! Programming a nuclear reactor impresses me, especially since there has not been any nuclear reactor disasters during your employment. What Should I Study In College?! Writing advanced algorithms in C# touches my engineer's heart; whereas writing a mere Web-based tool is schalkwyk phd thesis ho hum. And, while writing a Web service is fairly simple, particularly in DYNAMICS Autosaved ASP.Net, it's not so easy to write one that is secure, reliable, and responsive with that size of a data set.
It's also not easy to deal with concurrency issues at two different levels. I am not saying that it needs to be wordy or full of minute details, but if you are doing work beyond what a summer intern could do, I need to know about it. Schalkwyk Phd Thesis! Every developer has written a Web-based, data driven application. DEFININATION OF TEAM WORK AND TEAM! Show me more. Make sure that your experience highlights your skills. I don't expect your employment history to include a list of all your skills. But if you are looking for work as a .Net developer, show me that you have done some .Net work. If you do not list that experience, I am going to assume that you have little or no experience with it — even if it is on your skill list.
If you have large amounts of experience outside of the workforce, find a way to show that on your resume. Keep your resume between two to four pages long. I have struggled through seven-page resumes filled with jargon and boring details that made me want to cry. An overly long resume doesn't necessarily make me rule out a candidate, but why make it hard on me? On the other hand, a resume that tries to stick to Jf van schalkwyk, the one page rule is Letter Learn Appeal Letters not going to Jf van, cut it for a technical person unless they are new to archetypes pan, the field. In my experience, two to four pages is just right. Also, please use some whitespace, so I do not feel like I am drowning.
While technical pros' resumes do not need to be pretty, formatting can make a huge difference in a resume's readability. Schalkwyk Phd Thesis! If you cannot put three pages of text in front of Letter Learn Letters, me in Jf van a readable form, do I really want you touching the What should I study UI or writing code that someone else might have to maintain? I recommend that you stick to a larger font size (e.g., 10 - 12 pt.) in a font that reads well onscreen and in phd thesis print (e.g., Verdana, Arial, Tahoma, Calibri, Helvetica). If you want a slightly fancier font, use it only for section headers. Also, do not mix Serif and Sans Serif fonts — that is just ugly. Do not use Comic Sans anywhere, especially in Learn Appeal hot pink or baby blue (and yes, unfortunately, this needs to be stated). Keep your margins and space between paragraphs large enough to provide the reader some breathing room. I give applicants some slack on employment history. For instance, five year stints are fairly rare in phd thesis IT, and I give anyone a lot of and dissertation writing it reviews, leeway if their history includes anything that occurred during the dot com boom/bust. If you are (or were) a contractor or consultant, make sure that is clearly stated; otherwise, I will think that you get fired and/or quit every 3 - 12 months. Phd Thesis! If you were not a contractor or a consultant, and Resume Resume Template, it looks like you have a hard time staying at Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis a job, I am going to The It, be very cautious.
If I see an increasing progression of schalkwyk phd thesis, job titles, mercenary pops into my head. Also, if I see that they are lateral (or worse, negative) moves, bad apple is my first thought. Of course, sometimes you get hit with a string of Free Template, employers that go under or get acquired — it happens to the best of us. If that is the case, find a way to convey that information so I don't think you are unemployable. It is critical that the spelling and schalkwyk phd thesis, grammar in your resume is flawless. I have seen applicants misspell the Sample Learn name of their state and Jf van phd thesis, the name of their school. If grammar and spelling are not your forte, ask someone to archetypes in peter pan, look over your resume for you. While I understand that many IT pros are not native English language speakers (or are English language speakers who paid little attention to those subjects in school), you should still ask someone for help. In fact, knowing when to ask for help is phd thesis a hallmark of the best developers.
If I interview you and realize from Girl Analytical Essay your speech that you had the phd thesis sense and humility to archetypes pan, ask someone for help on your resume, I am going to be truly impressed. Schalkwyk Phd Thesis! (For examples of what not to do, check out Resume Parser, this list of real-life resume blunders.) Stay out of EEO (Equal Employment Opportunity) territory. In the United States, companies with more than 10 employees need to follow EEO rules. These rules state that an employer cannot discriminate against or show preference for an employee based on certain group membership items or personal lifestyle issues, such as gender, age, ethnicity, nation of origin, religion, sexual orientation, and so on. So, do me a favor and try to Jf van phd thesis, not expose any EEO-related information to me on the resume.
In a face-to-face interview or even a phone interview, some of Resume Parser Resume, it will be unavoidable. But I will never solicit that information. Not only do I want to keep my employer and phd thesis, myself out of trouble, but I personally feel that EEO is The It Girl Essay important. Jf Van Phd Thesis! I can understand that many names (or even college attended) are strongly correlated with ethnicity, religion, or nation (or at DEFININATION OF TEAM WORK Autosaved least general geographic region) of origin, and schalkwyk, college graduation or attendance dates give some age clues. Minimize this as much as possible.
Please do not tell me about should I study in college? your church, your family situation, your home life, your parents, and so on. Phd Thesis! It is not that I am not interested — I would probably love to learn these things about you if we hire you — but I do not need or want to know them before that you come on board. Outside interests, hobbies, achievements, and Parse, activities. I like to Jf van phd thesis, see these, but only The It Girl Analytical Essay, if they are relevant. I really do not need to schalkwyk, know about how big of archetypes pan, a fan you are of the New York Knicks; but if you wrote a piece of software that can do something nifty with the team's statistics for fun, I would love to phd thesis, know about it. People who contribute to open source projects get a huge gold star in my book, but only services it reviews, if I feel like they would be comfortable working on proprietary software with proprietary tools, and Jf van phd thesis, not bringing anything GPL'ed into my codebase. That is a small caveat there. Contributed to project XYZ in the areas of ABC and DEF is enough to whet my appetite.
Show me some outside learning too — don't let me think that you get home at 6;00 and shut off your brain. If this work is in peter pan not interesting enough for you to read about or experiment with on your own time, why would I think that you will be engaged or even interested in the job we would hire you for? Please give me something meaty that we can discuss during the interview. Jf Van Phd Thesis! So, where it is The It Analytical Essay relevant, try to show me how much of a nerd you are. For instance, try to mention the Jf van schalkwyk hovercraft you made from an inner tube and a lawn mower engine. Appeal Letter Learn! Make note of the iterative, evolutionary game theory system you coded in Lisp that proves that Nash's equilibrium is dead wrong. Jf Van Phd Thesis! Tell me something about your three chess championship victories. I do not want to know that you memorized UHF or that you have a pocket protectors collection that have logos of DEFININATION WORK AND TEAM DYNAMICS Autosaved, now defunct minicomputer vendors. I know most of this falls under the schalkwyk previous section, but it is relevant. Girl Analytical Essay! I love to work with programmers who love technology and schalkwyk, logic and using their brains.
People like that are simply better programmers. Why would I want to hire someone who is intellectually lazy for an intellectually challenging job? Obscure or nonmainstream technologies. I am not hiring Lisp, Prolog, Erlang, APL, Scheme, Clipper, PowerBuilder, Delphi, Pascal, Perl, Ruby, Python (forgive me for including those four in this list), Fortran, Ada, Algol, PL/1, OCaml, F#, Spec#, Smalltalk, Logo, StarLogo, Haskell, ML, D, Cobra, B, or even COBOL (which is Sample Appeal Letter Appeal fairly mainstream) developers. If you show these on your resume, I will want to interview you just for schalkwyk, the sake of slipping in a few questions about these items. I am serious. As part of my secret geekiness, I am really into obscure and almost obscure languages and technologies.
I know that a lot of essay and dissertation writing services it reviews, those items take better-than-industry-average intellect and experience to do; they also provide a set of experiences that gives their practitioners a great angle on problems. While you will never directly use those skills in my shop, you will be using those ways of thinking, and Jf van phd thesis, it will give us something to talk about on writing services it reviews, your first day. ( Aside: A coworker was shocked to learn that I played Half Life. He said, You are such a ‘business person' — I never thought you played video games. Phd Thesis! I guess I'm camouflaging my secret geekiness too well!) I've given away crown jewels here. In my perspective, these tips will help any programmer write a perfect resume and get them an interview. What do you think gets applicants an interview? If you read resumes as either a hiring manager, a recruiter, or an HR employee, what makes you say wow! or ugh! when you see it on paper? Justin James is the Lead Architect for Conigent. Justin James is the Lead Architect for Letters, Conigent.
We deliver the top business tech news stories about the companies, the Jf van schalkwyk people, and the products revolutionizing the planet. Our editors highlight the TechRepublic articles, galleries, and Essay, videos that you absolutely cannot miss to stay current on the latest IT news, innovations, and tips.
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90 Jahre Poets, Essayists, Novelists: Geschichte und Zukunft. Schalkwyk! 90 Jahre Poets, Essayists, Novelists: Geschichte und Zukunft. Bild: mitue. Resume Resume! Lizenz: Creative Commons BY-NC 2.0. Jf Van Phd Thesis! Original: Flickr. Thomas Mann hat einst das Wort vom „Zwang zur Politik“ geprägt.
Als Catharine Amy Dawson Scott im Oktober 1921 unseren Club gründete, dachte sie hingegen, gerade diesem als Bedrückung empfundenen Zwang, der vom fanatischen Nationalismus ausging, entgehen zu können. Girl Essay! Die Ausgliederung des politischen Stoffs und der politischen Kontroverse bestimmte mehr als ein Jahrzehnt lang die Zusammenkünfte der „poets, essayists und novellists“, die sich unter der Kürzel „P.E.N.“ zusammen-fanden. Durch den Akt einer Reinigung vom Chauvinismus sollten das literarische Gespräch und die völkerverbindende Kommunikation wieder möglich, die Bedeutung des Geistigen in phd thesis der zerrissenen Gesellschaft rekonstruiert werden. DEFININATION OF TEAM DYNAMICS! Mit dieser Setzung einer notwendig allgemein formulierten Bonhommie konnte die 1924 gegründete Gruppe eines deutschen P.E.N. in schalkwyk der Weimarer Republik nicht besonders wirksam werden. Should I Study In College?! Die scharfe, demokratiewidrige Zensur, gegen Links und Linksliberal geübt, eine überwiegend reaktionäre Justiz und eine ebenso gesonnene Verwaltung wurden durch ein solches Programm der Unpolitischen nicht gestört. Jf Van Phd Thesis! Andere Schriftstellerorganisationen nahmen hierzulande den Kampfplatz ein: der Schutzverband deutscher Schriftsteller (SDS) unter seinen Vorsitzenden Alfred Döblin und Theodor Heuss beispielsweise oder die Gruppe 1925, die sich als Aktionsbündnis von linken und konservativen Schriftstellern verstand. DEFININATION AND TEAM Autosaved! Doch gehörten dem deutschen P.E.N. Jf Van Schalkwyk Phd Thesis! am Ende der Weimarer Republik fast alle die kritischen Stimmen an, die sich früher, vor allem bei seinem Ersten Weltkongreß 1926 in I study Berlin, gegen ihn verwahrt hatten. Schalkwyk! Vorstand und Ausschuß des deutschen P.E.N. Pan! traten am 7. Schalkwyk Phd Thesis! März 1933 zurück. Pan! Gleichschaltung unter den Nazis. Kommissarisch fungierte ein Quartett aus vier ziemlich unbedeutenden Schriftstellern als Vorstand. Schalkwyk Phd Thesis! Die Namen muß man, nehmen wir Bergengruen mit einigen Vorbehalten aus, nicht kennen, sie sind zu unbedeutend.
Schon nach einem Monat wurde er ausnahmslos mit fanatischen Nazis besetzt und der P.E.N. Sample Appeal Letter Letters! damit gleichgeschaltet. Ein Augenzeuge schrieb, es sei zugegangen „wie bei einem Reserveoffiziersehrenrat“, der eine habe in phd thesis Uniform „den Willen von Göring“ verkündet, ein anderer „den von Goebbels“. DEFININATION OF TEAM AND TEAM! Aber auch dieser nationalsozialistische Klub sollte nur einige Monate bestehen. Jf Van! Seine moralische Niederlage erlitt er zwischen dem 20. Custom Essay And Dissertation Writing Services! und 24. Jf Van Phd Thesis! Mai 1933 auf der internationalen P.E.N.-Tagung im jugoslawischen Ragusa, dem heutigen kroatischen Dubrovnik, rund zehn Tage nach den Bücherverbrennungen, als die Delegierten aus dem Reich gefragt wurden, wie sie es mit der P.E.N.-Charta hielten, warum die namhaf-testen Schriftsteller vertrieben wurden und Alfred Kerr als Präsident zum Rücktritt gezwungen worden war. Appeal Appeal Letters! H.G. Jf Van! Wells, der internationale Präsident, wäre bereit gewesen, diese sogenannten „politischen Punkte“ auszusetzen, um einen Austritt des deutschen Klubs vorläufig zu vermeiden. Resume Free Parse Resume! Inzwischen aber war Ernst Toller in schalkwyk Ragusa eingetroffen und seine bevorstehende Rede stand wie ein Menetekel über der Kungelei hinter den Kulissen. Die reichsdeutsche Delegation verließ den Saal und ward nicht mehr gesehen. Girl Analytical Essay! Ernst Toller erzwang damals fast im Alleingang die Trennung. Jf Van Schalkwyk! Hätte es ihn und einige andere Exilschriftsteller nicht gegeben, wären die Nazis wohl noch längere Zeit im P.E.N. Custom Writing Services It Reviews! geblieben – wie etwa die Italiener mit ihrem faschistischen Filippo Marinetti.
Toller formulierte die nunmehr prägende Dialektik, dass die Schriftsteller, die sich von der Politik fernhalten wollten, eben doch politisch handelten, nämlich das falsche Lager unterstützten. Jf Van Schalkwyk Phd Thesis! Seit dem 15. Parser Template! Januar 1934 gab es den deutschen Club nicht mehr, denn an Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis diesem Tag wurde eine „Union Nationaler Schriftsteller mit Hanns Johst an Template der Spitze und unter anderen mit Gottfried Benn als Mitglied des Gründungsausschusses einberufen, aber die einzige Organisation, die im Nazideutschland etwas zu sagen hatte, war die Reichsschrifttumskammer. Phd Thesis! Kurz nach der Auflösung des Naziklubs betrieben einige wenige Exilautoren die Neugründung eines deutschen P:E:N: Lion Feuchtwanger, Ernst Toller, Max Herrmann Neisse warben um Mitglieder, das organisatorische Zentrum bildete der Publizist Rudolf Olden, der übrigens erst im vergangenen Jahr, sehr spät, durch eine Ausstellung in DEFININATION OF TEAM WORK AND TEAM Autosaved der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek in Frankfurt am Main geehrt worden ist. Jf Van Phd Thesis! Heinrich Mann übernahm die Präsidentschaft dieses „Deutschen P.E.N.Clubs im Exil.“ Dieser Organisation vor allem ist es zu verdanken, dass die Politik der Menschenrechte zum bevorzugten Ziel im Internationalen P.E.N. Learn! wurde. Jf Van Phd Thesis! Sind wir die Erben dieser deutschen Schriftstellergruppe und ihres moralischen wie literarischen Ruhms? Ich zögere mit einer Antwort: keiner von uns wäre diesem Erbe gewachsen – aus mehreren Gründen. Wer könnte im Ernst behaupten, er sei in writing die Spur beispielsweise von Georg Bernhard, Ernst Bloch, Bernard von Brentano, Alfred Döblin, Lion Feuchtwanger, Bruno Frank, Ödön von Horvath, Alfred Kerr, Hermann Kesten, Egon Erwin Kisch, , Leopold Schwarzschild, Anna Seghers, Ernst Toller, Theodor Wolff oder Arnold Zweig getreten? Und niemand kann behaupten, er habe in schalkwyk phd thesis Europa mit dem gleichen Hass und Auslöschungstrieb, mit einem ähnlichen Antisemitismus und Mörderinstinkt zu rechnen wie die Emigranten durch die Nationalsozialisten. Aber wir haben von diesen Autoren, die sich als die Kronzeugen eines anderen Deutschland verstehen durften, als Erbschaft vielleicht einige Aufträge erhalten.
Die Geschichte der deutschen Exilliteratur ist weitgehend erforscht. Sample Appeal Learn! Die Manuskriptschätze, soweit noch vorhanden, sind gesichert und durchgearbeitet, auch wenn an Forschung vor allem in schalkwyk phd thesis New York und Jerusalem noch einiges zu tun wäre. Aber dank zweier Generationen von Literaturwissenschaftlern in AND TEAM beiden deutschen Staaten und in schalkwyk den USA ist ein Fundus erarbeitet. Essay! Es kommt nun darauf an, ihn für eine kritische Gegen-wartskunde zu mustern. Phd Thesis! Die Aufgabe heißt, dieses Erbe vergilbender Archivalien in Appeal Letter seiner Signifikanz zu vergegenwärtigen und an Jf van schalkwyk den akuten Gegebenheiten zu messen. Sample Learn Appeal! Unzählige Menschen in Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis allen Teilen dieser Erde, nach einer Uno-Schätzung 120 Millionen, sind heute auf der Flucht.
Das Heer der Entrechteten und Entwurzelten, der Menschen, die wegen ihrer Sprache, ihrer Überzeugung, ihrer Hautfarbe, ihrer Religion, ihrer kulturellen Zugehörigkeit oder schlicht: wegen ihrer Armut vertrieben werden oder außer Landes gehen müssen, nimmt ständig zu. Daraus entstehen nicht nur soziale Katastrophen, sondern auch neue Umrisse von Weltliteratur. Sie wird verfasst von Leuten, die sich wie selbstverständlich am falschen Ort empfinden. Sample Appeal Learn! Sie sind Experten der Zeitsprünge, der Untergänge von Lebenswelten. Phd Thesis! Sie machen ihre Erfahrungen durch Grenzübertritt und Flucht, sie entkräften das Doktrinäre, das dem Wort „Heimat“ auch anhaften kann. Sie schreiben einen Fortsetzungsroman über jene Dynamik, die viele vom angestammten Platz verweist, auch wenn wir uns noch so sehr nach einem Moratorium sehnen mögen. DEFININATION OF TEAM WORK DYNAMICS Autosaved! Türkische Immigranten und russischdeutsche Emigranten, Menschen aus dem Maghreb und aus Schwarzafrika, Flüchtlinge aus dem Balkan schreiben sie unter anderem.
In England und Frankreich sind die Territorien der ehemaligen Kolonialgebiete einzurechnen. Phd Thesis! Der emigrierte Schriftsteller erscheint vielfach als translated man, als Bote und Fährmann zwischen verschiedenen Kulturen, aber auch als Transitexistenz, die von diesen Kulturen „übersetzt“, überlagert worden ist. What Should I Study In College?! Der Nobelpreisträger V.S. Jf Van Schalkwyk! Naipaul wäre, wenn es so etwas gäbe, vielleicht ihr Sprecher: geboren auf Trinidad, indische Vorfahren, Studium in should in college? Oxford, britischer Romancier, Erkunder aller Fremden seiner verschlungenen Lebenswege. Seismographen globalisierter Notlagen. Jf Van Schalkwyk! Diese Literatur lässt sich nur noch notdürftig als Emigrationsliteratur bezeichnen, denn sie wird oft von Menschen geschrieben, die in What should I study in college? dem Land, in schalkwyk dem ihre Vorfahren angekommen sind, geboren wurden und aufgewachsen sind. Letter Appeal! Im Grunde fehlt für diese Literatur die Terminologie. Jf Van! Aber an DEFININATION WORK DYNAMICS ihr sind noch immer jene Verfremdungen der Existenz zu ermitteln, die deutsche Exilanten erfahren haben. Jf Van! Zu diesen Seismographen heutiger globalisierter Notlagen könnten wir die deutschen Exilschriftsteller rechnen, nachdem wir sie seit den sechziger Jahren in in peter pan ihrem historischen Kontext aufgesucht haben. Jf Van Phd Thesis! Die zukünftige Aufgabe besteht darin, ihr Werk mit dem heute entstehenden zu verknüpfen, die Arbeit der Historiker zu aktualisieren. Archetypes Pan! Es ist literarisch eine „neue Unübersichtlichkeit“ entstanden und sie ist ein enormer Zugewinn.
Niemand darf von ihr die nächste Nähe zu unserer Vorliebe erwarten, mit sich identisch zu sein. Jf Van Phd Thesis! Sie bildet einen Raum des Nichtidentischen. Resume Template! Jeder will ja heute mit sich, seiner Psyche, seiner Volksgruppe, seiner Vorstadt, seinem ethnischen Stammtisch und wem nicht alles sonst identisch sein. Die Herausbildung transnationaler Strukturen in Jf van phd thesis Wirtschaft, Politik und Verwaltung erzeugt den Gegenschlag: die Befriedigung der Sehnsucht nach Identität in Sample Appeal Letter Appeal irgendeinem fest bestimmten und gereinigten Raum, genannt „das Nationale“. Das Eigentümliche daran ist: man kann diesen Raum beliebig verkleinern bis zur Quartiergröße des ethnischen Fanatismus: Kosovo und Montenegro sind solche Beispiele, das Baskenland wäre ein solches, wenn man es den Euskaladunak-Fanatikern überließe. Identität verspreche Hochmut, warnt der ungarische Großeuropäer György Konrád. Jf Van Schalkwyk Phd Thesis! Dagegen die neue Art von Weltliteratur: Wir müssen als Leser einen Kursus in Girl fremden Tonlagen absolvieren. Wir erfahren, dass eine reichhaltigere Musik als das Volkslied besteht.
Wir lernen, dass die Fremde als Desaster erfahren wird, aber auch ein Reichtum sein kann. Schalkwyk Phd Thesis! Gemeinsam ist diesen Autoren, die ich als Beiträger einer neuen Weltliteratur verstehe, die Körpernähe von Geschichte. What In College?! Die Erfahrungen der Naziherrschaft und des Stalinismus werden einander konfrontiert, die lange Nacht des Exils ist vielen dieser Autoren bekannt und geht mit ihnen oft nicht zu Ende, das Gedächtnis gilt ihnen als eine der letzten verbliebenen moralischen Instanzen. Daraus entsteht ein neuer, übergreifender Text, in schalkwyk dem unser so schwer anzunehmendes Erbe aufleuchten könnte. Sample Letter Learn Appeal Letters! Ich meine es praktisch: Dafür soll es weiterhin die Arbeitsstellen für deutsche Exilliteratur geben. Es ist eine Aufgabe der Bildungspolitik, auch unserer Herzen, das Fremde und die Fremden anzunehmen, dass wir das Schicksalsmäander unserer vertriebenen Vorfahren nachzeichnen. Phd Thesis! Vieles aus der Vergangenheit wird zum Prüfstein für das Jetzt. Ein Beispiel: Der amerikanische Präsident Roosevelt führte 1940 einen intensiven, aber wenig erfolgreichen Kampf um Visen für die europäischen Flüchtlinge – und zwar gegen sein eigenes Außenministerium.
Anfang 1940 hat er als Beratergremium einen Ausschuß für Flüchtlingsfragen gründen lassen. Parser Parse Template! Der empfahl nach einigen Monaten 567 Schriftsteller, Künstler und Intellektuelle zur Aufnahme in die USA, doch willigte das State Department bis Oktober 1940 erst in schalkwyk 40 Visa ein. In Peter! Der spätere Kommunistenjäger Martin Dies, ein Großmogul der Xenophobie, erklärte unverblümt: „Wir müssen die Tränen, das Schluchzen der Sentimentalen ignorieren und die Tore unseres Landes für alle Zeiten verriegeln und verschließen gegenüber einer neuen Einwanderungswelle, und wenn wir das getan haben, sollten wir die Schlüssel fortwerfen.“ Wie weit weg sind solche Zitate von mancher Auffassung gegenüber heutigen Asylbewerbern? Jeder sollte sich das fragen. Jf Van! Die Geschichte ist das Spiegelkabinett unserer Gegenwart. Essay And Dissertation Writing Services It Reviews! Ein großer Anfang ist gemacht. Schalkwyk! Der deutsche P.E.N. Essay And Dissertation It Reviews! verfügt seit mehr als einem Jahrzehnt über ein ordentlich ausgestattetes Programm zur Aufnahme von Exilautoren im heutigen Deutschland. Jf Van Schalkwyk Phd Thesis! Dafür haben wir allen Staatsministern für Kultur zu danken, aber besonders Ihnen, Herr Neumann: Sie haben es ausgebaut. OF TEAM Autosaved! Es ist eine oft mühsame, jedenfalls schwierige, mit gegenseitigen Missverständnissen behaftete Arbeit, die um die immer gleichen Stichworte wie Unterkunft, Stipendium, Traumata, Familie, Kommunikation und Publikationshilfe kreist. Jeder Fall ist anders, aber wenn die Lösung auf einige Jahre der Eingewöhnung und des Übergangs gelingt, leuchtet eben dieser Einzelfall in seiner Beispielskraft auf. Schalkwyk Phd Thesis! Bei der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek in OF TEAM AND TEAM Frankfurt wird erwogen, die Bestände des Exilarchivs mit Erfahrungen von Flucht, Exil und Vertreibung von Autoren und Künstlern in Jf van anderen Ländern zu verknüpfen.
Dies erfordert neben viel Sachverstand auch neue, zusätzliche Mittel, wenn es nicht bei der Absicht bleiben soll. Die Gesellschaft für Exilliteratur, ein jahrzehntelang sehr erfolgreich arbeitender Verein vor allem von amerikanischen und deutschen Wissenschaftlern, bedarf neuer, auch materieller Impulse. Wenn das geplante Vertreibungszentrum in DEFININATION WORK DYNAMICS Berlin nicht nur ein deutsches werden, sondern ein europäisches Format haben soll, muss in phd thesis ihm mindestens jüdische, polnische, ukrainische, weißrussische Geschichte der Überwältigungen, Fluchten, Rettungen und Untergänge auch versammelt werden. Pan! Die Gestaltung dieses Zentrums darf nicht den Vertriebenenverbänden überlassen werden. Jf Van Schalkwyk Phd Thesis! An all diesen und vielen anderen Punkten berühren sich historische Erfahrungen und Arbeitspraxis im P.E.N., die in Resume Free Parse Resume Template der Ausstellung von Sven Hanuschek auftauchen, mit gegenwärtigen Problemen. Schalkwyk! Wir entkommen unseren Vorfahren nicht. Writing It Reviews! Vielleicht sind wir doch Erben, die mit der Hinterlassenschaft der Probleme immer etwas mehr und immer wieder etwas Neues zu leisten haben. Schalkwyk Phd Thesis! Heinrich-Boll-Stiftungen in archetypes pan Bundeslandern.
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Free Essays on Canadian Stereotypes. Canadian Stereotypes Essay As I write this, I sit inside my igloo with a warm glass of Jf van maple syrup next to me and my moose “Rex” curled up in a ball just outside. Just hearing that sentence probably made you think of a Canadian even though, except in rare cases, none of Parser Free Template it is true about me. Phd Thesis! Stereotypes. NATIONAL STEREOTYPES THE ENGLISH Personality tests indicate that national stereotypes are constructed on the basis of prejudices and rumours.
Themselves consider them to be superior in all respects to Resume Free Template anyone else in the world, allowing other nations to assume a number of qualities, becoming less. English 1301 3 December 2011 The Negative Impact of Stereotypes Stereotype - a simplified and standardized conception or image invested with special meaning and held in schalkwyk phd thesis common by members of a group (Dictionary). In simpler words, stereotypes are judgments based on actions of an individual or small. and they are just like most Canadians , they are good-hearted, hard working and friendly. One main difference separates Newfoundlanders from the rest of Canada. Newfoundlanders are engulfed in stereotypes and The It Analytical, tasteless jokes. This paper will discuss the Newfoundland stereotypes , how Newfoundlanders feel. Content Analysis Of Gender Stereotypes in Jf van schalkwyk Magazines.
Content Analysis on Gender Stereotype Usage in Magazines Research Question It only takes a second to attach a strong feeling or idea to a character in a movie, advertisement, or video game. Many characterization used are based on pan the assumed stereotypes , and are usually one-dimensional. people. It’s the first trait I boast when others want to know what makes me unique. Schalkwyk! My maternal grandmother (Nana) is The It Analytical full-blooded Agundan (Native- Canadian tribe) and my paternal Grandmother (Grandma) is half Cherokee. My various roots are intertwined with my culture, morals, traditions, and have helped. Microfinance and Gender Is there a Glass Ceiling on Loan Size. Jean-Michel Servet, Rodrigo Soares, Oystein Strom, the participants to Jf van phd thesis the Third International Workshop on Micro?nance (Groningen, August 2010) and the Canadian Economic Association Annual Meeting (Ottawa, May 2010), and should I study in college?, three anonymous referees for helpful discussions and phd thesis, suggestions.
Isabelle Agier is grateful . Representation of Women in Canadian Parliament. 1921, men were the only members of the Canadian parliamentary system. With the first Canadian women being elected into the Canadian parliament in 1921, women have had the ability to participate and become elected into the House of Commons. Since then, Canadian women’s participation in the House of Commons. showed among generations, supported by a time-lag study (which are on our mind the most relevant). Secondly, we will show an understanding about stereotypes that give directions to Girl beliefs. Then we will go further by responding to the saying that ‘today’s young workers don’t have the schalkwyk phd thesis same values that. more than one. (1) Final way would be the Resume Free Parse economy blaming that older people are slow out of date and are not helping the economy at schalkwyk phd thesis all. (1) The stereotypes of older people that believe people to believe these things are that they are slow, they can’t work, hard of hearing and there are a few jobs that. Stereotypes Stereotypes have been around since the making of America; they have portrayed many groups whether it be a race, ethnicities, or even a gender. Stereotypes are used to degrade and ‘promote’ the many groups negatively which still continues today. It is The It Analytical Essay agreeable that there are many stereotypes.
2011 6:18 AM ET [pic]A poster campaign by Ohio University's Students Teaching About Racism in Society fights the use of Halloween costumes that stereotype ethnic groups and cultures. (Ohio University's Students Teaching About Racism in Society) | | | | |Facebook. The Canadian Economy in the Post-Depression Period. Continentalism: The Canadian Economy in the Post-Depression Period” In the Jf van phd thesis 1930 depression hit Canada and brought down international trade and investment. In the Custom essay writing services end of the Jf van phd thesis decade depression didn’t seem to Custom and dissertation writing services be going away and Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis, with the war starting new policies were needed to prepare Canadian economy for. past social norms. The sociological imagination is a useful concept when analyzing gender inequality, it causes the gradual shift toward equality in Canadian society.
This concept allows for a thorough analysis of individual issues in the greater societal context by applying different perspectives in the. Stereotypes and Prejudice Worksheet. Associate Program Material Stereotypes and Prejudice Worksheet Please complete the following exercises, remembering that you are in an academic setting and should remain unbiased, considerate, and professional when completing this worksheet. Part I Select three of the DEFININATION WORK Autosaved identity categories. National Stereotypes and Identities. Stereotypes are a big part of our national identity. The way others see us as a nation also influences the way we see ourselves as a nation. Stereotypes may be wrong, but they are nonetheless quite important for schalkwyk phd thesis our identity. Appeal Letter Appeal Letters! When you hear the word Austria you sure think about mountains, skiing or Mozart. is today. Immigration is Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis a key to the success of the Canadian economy, as many of The It Analytical our current practices have been ideas originating from Europe, and Asia, and the rest of the world.
Without having immigrants in the Canadian workforce, the Canadian government and Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis, businesses would not be where they are. family in The It Analytical Essay postcolonial Pakistan, English ruled our lives. .. want to get anywhere in schalkwyk phd thesis this field.. You know, you have to learn to Free Resume talk like a Canadian .. .. This was in 1975 when I first came to Canada, at Jf van schalkwyk my first job-as an editorial assistant in Resume Resume a television station. I get upset even now-22. myself I started to believe that, I saw a truth in those stereotypes . Jf Van Schalkwyk Phd Thesis! I felt guilty for archetypes being here like I didn?t belong and was trespassing in someone else?s country.
In my social studies classes I didn?t learn anything that contradicted those stereotypes . I thought all we did was cross the Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis border and steal. Stereotypes in Catholicism To make a stereotype is to What make a generalization of Jf van a certain group or people that is often false that have a positive or negative outlook on them. Archetypes Pan! Stereotypes can be made about a certain race, gender, sexual orientation or religion. One of the schalkwyk biggest religions practiced. imbalance in society, as the two races are unable to coexists. For example, though Kakatso has the knowledge and What should, resources, he refuses to help the four Canadian escapees because of revenge. White supremacy causes a cultural imbalance in society. When the passenger talks to phd thesis Kakatso, the superior tone and pan, choice. Stereotypes and Prejudice Worksheet. ?Associate Program Material Stereotypes and Prejudice Worksheet Please complete the following exercises, remembering that you are in an academic setting and should remain unbiased, considerate, and professional when completing this worksheet.
Part I Select three of the identity categories. causes of the canadian great depression. various. The connection between Canadian economic and Jf van, American Economic was too strong and Canadian economic was not healthy enough due to the excessive dependence on raw materials. Lastly, the Learn Letters crash of schalkwyk phd thesis stock market is Girl also one of the reasons too. Schalkwyk! Body A Canadian economic dependent on the U.S. too. The Right to What should Exist in a Relationship with More Than Two Individuals in Western Society.
parts of North America. To further legitimatize polyamory based on religion, it can be in fact considered under existing laws of the land such as the Canadian Charter of Jf van schalkwyk Rights and Freedoms specifically under Fundamental Freedoms and Equality Rights and within the United States Constitution primarily the. Stereotypes Of Canadians Dancing For The Devil 2. ? Stereotypes of Canadians Is there a typical Canadian personality? How are we influenced by stereotypes ? I. “Dance with the Devil” by Edward McCourt Synopsis The Reverend Dugald Cameron meets the I study devil face to face in old Raftery’s hut on the top of Dead Man’s Butte, wins the confrontation, and in. counterproductive since this particular Swedish woman was not a secretary. Stereotypes Stereotyping involves a form of categorization that organizes our experience and schalkwyk phd thesis, guides our behavior toward ethnic and national groups. Stereotypes never describe individual behavior; rather, they describe the behavioral. ? Canadian Stereotypes When most people think of the term ‘group’ they think of a sports team, a church group or even the “popular” group at school, but not everyone classifies their race, culture or religion as a group.
Spending eleven years of my childhood growing up in Canada I never classified. Stereotypes of Women in the Hip-Hop Culture. College Writing I Sec. 39 15 March 2010 Stereotypes of Women in the Hip-Hop Culture Have you ever wondered what it would be like if there were no stereotyping in America. Stereotyping has been around for quite a long time and women in particular have been stereotyped for numerous reasons. There. based on archetypes Kingston o Satire on schalkwyk upper0class, waspy university - Hard to make a living as a Canadian novelist o Many Canadian writers moved away or set novels in The It Canada but were indifferent to actual Canadian geography o Very small audience in Canada - Vincent Massey asked him to be dean of Massey. Rafter WE2 20 October 2013 Stereotypes Should a person be judged upon the color of their skin and how they look and dress? Everyday people are being judged because of how they appear. This does not mean that they are exactly what they are perceived to be.
Stereotypes offer a very limited one-sided. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. ? Canadian Broadcasting Corporation – Canadian Broadcasters of Culture The CBC is a publicly owned media outlet funded (in part) by taxpayers. Jf Van! The CBC was formed in Free Parse Resume Template the context of a very different historical moment than now. Given that the Canadian mediascape has changed, should. Stereotypes Stereotypes are thoughts adopted about a person or a group of people that may or may not be true. In reality a stereotype does not really have a definition. Different people view stereotypes differently. Researchers and schalkwyk, psychologists have different definitions what a stereotypes can. Although demeaning and offensive racial stereotypes were pervasive in popular media of every kind during the in peter pan 20th century, most observers would agree that the media is much more sensitive to representations of phd thesis race today. But the pernicious effects of that stereotyping live on in the new racism arising.
and culture of a country. The Canadian Film Industry, which may further be expanded to the media industry, is a fantastic example of how the history of something in I study in college? a country can shape and influence the Jf van phd thesis identity and culture of the country. The history of the Canadian Film Industry allows us insight. ? From the period of the mid 19th Century Aboriginals and Natives in America have faced widespread stereotypes and omissions as well as outright being the ones suppressed in society by the Western white colonizers, what can be seen here is a trend on how the archetypes pan public has been fed with films that. Healthcare in Canadian Prisons According to phd thesis a 2008 Census, there are approximately 31,612,897 people occupying the country Canada. Keeping this in mind, for every 100,000 people, 131 of these citizens are incarcerated. DEFININATION OF TEAM WORK! This means there are roughly 31 to 32,000 prisoners of this country. Jf Van! There are 192. helped make the events as equal as they are today It was tough being a women during the 1920s but even tougher to be a women athlete. There were stereotypes that surrounded the image of a women participating in and dissertation sports, “It was considered immoral and overtly masculine for women to run, jump and exert themselves. compare the language and themes used in one to better assess the schalkwyk other.
In American history, the Indian is a character that is archetypes in peter pan stereotyped. Schalkwyk Phd Thesis! These stereotypes may arouse from the fact that mainstream knowledge of the character comes from popular films with extreme generalizations. However, well-educated. Source one exhibits Sir Arthur Currie the successful Canadian military commander of Vimy Ridge in essay and dissertation 1917. The picture in which he is schalkwyk portrayed in displays him to be a stern and serious yet calm, collected, and victorious. He was the first Canadian to Custom essay attain the rank of full general.
His great accomplishment. Comparing Emily Carr and Carol Geddes. Carr and Jf van, Carol Geddes, in their essays, “Sophie” and “Growing up Native,” explore the effects that the imposition of white culture has on Sample Aboriginal Canadians . Both Sophie and schalkwyk, Geddes struggle with poverty and discrimination. Resume Parser Free Resume Template! Sophie, uneducated, resigns to these conditions never fighting back; she has neither. Mental Illness Stigma in phd thesis the Media. that, continue the representation of people with mental illnesses as unpredictable, child-like, hyper-sexual, dangerous, evil and violent, says the Canadian Mental Health Association of Custom and dissertation writing it reviews Ontario. Jf Van Schalkwyk Phd Thesis! These movies put a out a negative stigma about mental illness that is not what it truly is. They also say, Whether. she played an overweight mother of a low-income family. The show related with a lot more people, but the message was fat people can't be successful. Canadian researcher Gregory Fouts reports that over three-quarters of the female characters in TV situation comedies are underweight, and only one in twenty.
Canadian Brew Evan Yusep Mrs. Woytiuk 12/20/11 People say that Canada lacks a unique identity, but Strange Brew took this opinion as a challenge with its extreme, satirical exaggeration of the stereotypical Canadian . Everything from the language to clothing is a Canadian exaggeration. Custom! The plot. people. Though Kirk Lazarus plays a black man in the tributing film Tropic Thunder, he is originally a oscar winning Australian.
The film stereotypes the Australian people by giving Lazarus the typical blonde hair and bright blue eyes with light to tan like skin color. When Chino is offended by. Rhetoric and Stereotype Essay There are many different groups of people that are being stereotyped in our society everyday. The stereotypes are found in politicians, tattooed persons, feminists, and senior citizens. I am going to try to Jf van phd thesis explain how these four basic groups that we see. definitely the hardest part of in peter pan attending residential schools for the non-English speaking students. They were forced to read, write and speak the European- Canadian language and would be punished if they spoke their native tongue; however, English was not the phd thesis only language they were forced to Sample Letters learn; Latin was. • High violence against crimes that go unspoken in society • 30% wage gap in between the women and men • Societal pressures on gender stereotypes —i.e. Role of genders in phd thesis the home FORMAL AND INFORMAL PLACES OF LEARNING • Israeli-Palestinian conflict at Concordia • Lack of The It Girl Analytical Essay education. Stereotypes and Prejudice Worksheet. ?Associate Program Material Stereotypes and schalkwyk phd thesis, Prejudice Worksheet Please complete the following exercises, remembering that you are in an academic setting and should remain unbiased, considerate, and professional when completing this worksheet.
Part I Select three of the identity categories. Oppression of First Nation People. prejudiced as. These prejudices have lead to stereotypes and even forms of discrimination and racism. Unfortunately, the majority of the beliefs are negative and have been widespread amongst non First Nations people. Some of the unfortunate cultural stereotypes that exist in today’s society are that First.
his 1962 essay, “Canada’s Long Term Strategic Situation”, Dr. What I Study In College?! R. J. Sutherland took the unusually bold step of predicting the stable foundations of Canadian defense policy for the next four decades, even though he was writing at the height of Cold War tensions and amid revolutionary developments in nuclear. Why do stereotypes exists in today’s world. Most of the people today are over the black and white issues or people coming from other countries into America. The United States took a huge step in history.
The United States has its first African American president, Barack Obama. The Republican voters. The topic of Canadian culture is highly controversial. This subject raises the question: What is Canadian culture? In fact, the Royal Commission on Publications of Jf van schalkwyk 1961 rejected the term “ Canadian culture” entirely and Custom essay and dissertation services it reviews, instead used the terms “the Canadian experience” and “Canada’s national identity.”. interpersonal and embodied ageism. I will discuss the Jf van various consequences that this can and does have for Custom and dissertation writing our society with the aid of the schalkwyk theories of OF TEAM Autosaved Stereotype Embodiment and and the notion of the Jf van phd thesis Looking Glass Self. I will then apply the theories of functionalism, symbolic interactionism and conflict as.
?Associate Program Material Stereotypes and Letter Letters, Prejudice Worksheet Please complete the following exercises, remembering that you are in an academic setting and schalkwyk phd thesis, should remain unbiased, considerate, and professional when completing this worksheet. Part I Select three of the identity categories. have that kind of support system, helping them through their life; helping them discover who they are. “According to the Canadian Medical Association, thirty-two percent of Canadians have experienced physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to intimate partner violence or a combination of these while. Stereotypes Pashley Sims PHI 103 Shana Goodson 8/2/2013 Stereotypes Stereotype is when people are judging someone on how they want to and dissertation services it reviews be. In today’s society many people feel as if they can judge a person if that person is not what they should be. Many times I have judged a person on their religious. ? Stereotypes and schalkwyk, How They Relate to Group Dynamics Christelle Baptiste HUS3201 02/26/2016 Abstract Stereotypes and Sample Appeal Letter Appeal Letters, How They Relate to Group Dynamics Even though if people did not perceive themselves as belonging to groups, then there would be no order to schalkwyk society, stereotyping is I study directly. Stereotypes and Prejudice Please complete the following exercises, remembering that you are in an academic setting and should remain unbiased, considerate, and schalkwyk phd thesis, professional when completing this worksheet. Part I Select three of the identity categories below and name or describe at Sample Appeal Letter Learn Letters least 3. ? Associate Program Material Stereotypes and Prejudice Worksheet Please complete the following exercises, remembering that you are in an academic setting and should remain unbiased, considerate, and professional when completing this worksheet. Part I Select three of the identity categories. Professionalism Within Canadian Hockey.
Professionalism within Canadian Hockey John Dowbiggin Susan Markham Starr March 25th 2011 Introduction Canada is a country symbolized by many things such as the maple leaf, our animals and especially the sport of phd thesis hockey. Canadians have fallen in love with the game of hockey because Canadian history has.
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Homer Circa Eighth Century B.C. - Essay. Homer Circa Eighth Century B.C. Greek poet. Schalkwyk. See also Iliad Criticism . Homer's two epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey , have greatly influenced the Resume Free Parse style and content of Western literature and are considered two of the Jf van schalkwyk greatest literary artifacts of Western civilization. Taken together, the Iliad and archetypes pan the Odyssey display comic as well as tragic elements, and cover a broad range of Jf van themes that are still relevant today: war, religion, honor, betrayal, vengeance, and humanity's quest for immortality. Over the AND TEAM DYNAMICS Autosaved centuries, the poems have left an schalkwyk indelible imprint on the fields of literature, art, philosophy, and ethics.
Writers as diverse as Virgil, Shakespeare, John Milton, and James Joyce have been inspired by DEFININATION OF TEAM the characters and tales presented in the epics. Almost nothing is known about Homer, but scholars hypothesize that he was an Ionian Greek (probably from the coast of Asia Minor or one of the adjacent islands), that he was born sometime before 700 B.C., and that he lived in approximately the latter half of the eighth century B.C. Schalkwyk. According to legend, he was a blind itinerant poet; historians note that singing bards in ancient Greece were often blind and that the DEFININATION OF TEAM DYNAMICS Autosaved legend, therefore, may be based on fact. Jf Van Phd Thesis. It is also possible that Homer may have lost his sight only late in life or that his purported blindness was meant to mask his illiteracy. Biographies of Homer exist in the form of six early lives and assorted commentaries by ancient and Byzantine scholars, but the information they contain is considered unreliable and mostly mythical. Some commentators have gone so far as to assert that no such individual ever existed. The paucity of information regarding Homer and his relation to the Iliad and pan the Odyssey has incited much scholarly inquiry and has brought together the Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis efforts of experts in such fields as archeology, linguistics, art, and comparative literature. As a result of WORK AND TEAM DYNAMICS Autosaved their research, three main theories regarding the composition of the phd thesis poems have emerged: the analytic, the Unitarian, and the oral folkepic. Archetypes In Peter Pan. Until the publication of the Friedrich Adolph Wolf's Prolegomena ad Homerum in schalkwyk, 1795, the notion that Homer was the author of the What Iliad and the Odyssey was largely undisputed.
However, citing certain inconsistencies and phd thesis errors in Free Parse Resume Template, the texts, Wolf asserted that the two works were not the compositions of one poet, but the products of many different authors at work on various traditional poems and stories. Wolf's argument convinced many critics—who were subsequently termed the analysts—but also. inspired the notorious authorship controversy known as the Homeric question. Although Wolf's view prevailed throughout the schalkwyk nineteenth and The It Analytical Essay early twentieth centuries, it was ultimately challenged by an opposing group of critics, the Unitarians, whose primary spokesman was Andrew Lang. Schalkwyk. The Unitarians insisted that a single individual of genius composed the Homeric epics, and they supported that claim by citing a unified sensibility, original style, and consistent use of in peter themes and imagery in schalkwyk phd thesis, the poems. These two critical camps were, to a degree, reconciled by Milman Parry's discovery in the 1920s that the poems were composed orally.
Parry established that Homeric verse is formulaic by nature, relying on essay writing generic epithets (such as wine-dark sea and rosy-fingered dawn), repetition of stock lines and half-lines, and scenes and themes typical of traditional folk poetry. Comparing Homer's poetry with ancient oral epics from other cultures, Parry deduced that Homer was most likely a rhapsode, or itinerant professional reciter, who improvised stories to be sung at Greek festivals. As a public performer, Homer probably learned to weave together standard epic story threads and descriptions in order to sustain his narrative, and relied on mnemonic devices and schalkwyk phd thesis phrases to fill the natural metrical units of poetic lines. Parry's theory, like that of the analysts, stressed the derivative, evolutionary character of Homer's poetry; but like the Unitarians, Parry affirmed Homer's individual genius as a shaper of traditional elements whose creations far exceeded the sum of their borrowed parts. Most twentieth-century critics accept Parry's analysis of the authorship question. Two epic poems have been attributed to Homer: the Iliad focuses on the Trojan War during the The It Girl twelfth century B.C., in Jf van schalkwyk, particular the Parser Template actions of the Jf van phd thesis Greek or Achaean hero Achilles—a warrior who is both brave and headstrong; the Odyssey is set after the Greek victory in WORK AND TEAM, the Trojan War and recounts the adventures and Jf van schalkwyk long-delayed homecoming of the clever Greek hero Odysseus. Internal evidence from these two epics suggests that while the Appeal Learn Appeal Letters Iliad predates the Odyssey , both were composed in the eighth century B.C. in a dialect that was a mixture of Ionic and Aeolic Greek. The textual history of the poems is Jf van schalkwyk, assumed to have begun with oral versions of the poems which were transmitted by local bards and probably written down on papyri shortly after Homer's death. Once set down in The It Essay, writing, the poems most likely became the exclusive property of the Homeridae , or sons of Homer, a bardic guild whose members performed and preserved the Jf van poems. In Peter. Scholars believe that in the second half of the sixth century B.C., they established a Commission of Editors of Homer to edit the text of the poems and remove any errors and Jf van phd thesis interpolations that had accumulated in the process of transmission—thereby establishing a Canon of Homer.
The first printed edition of DYNAMICS Homer's poetry appeared in Europe in 1488 and remained in use until the seventeenth century. Many translations, both prose and verse, of the epics have subsequently been published. As two of the Jf van schalkwyk best known literary works of the Western world, the Parser Parse Template Iliad and the Odyssey have inspired much critical commentary and have wielded an enormous influence on later authors and readers. The Greek philosopher Aristotle, in explicating his rules for dramatic poetry, found in phd thesis, Homer the most exemplary combination of high seriousness, unity of action, dramatic vividness, and authorial reserve. In classical times, Homer's works formed the Appeal Appeal Letters basis of any educational curriculum and therefore left an indelible imprint on the fields of schalkwyk phd thesis literature, art, philosophy, and ethics. Homer's works, generally venerated as repositories of traditional wisdom, were among the first books to be printed in the fifteenth century in in peter pan, Europe. The vogue for restraint and correctness that characterized the critical thought of the sixteenth century led many scholars to reject Homer's works in favor of those of Virgil.
However, Homer's preeminence as an epic poet was reestablished in the eighteenth century by the translations of Chapman and Pope and the essays in Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis, praise of Homer by Joseph Addison. With the value of the poems firmly established, twentieth-century critics have been nearly unanimous in praising Homer's handling of the narrative, imagery, structure, and themes. They commend his ability to intersperse lengthy battle scenes with highly dramatic dialogue, imaginative creatures, whimsical fantasy about the gods of Olympus, and, at certain key moments, moving lyrical poetry. Homer's genius, scholars assert, is most evident in his masterful yet self-effacing storytelling technique. In a perfectly plain and direct manner, the narrator carries the archetypes in peter pan action forward, examining the events in great detail and occasionally digressing from the main narrative, but always in schalkwyk, such a manner that the tales seem completely natural. Many epic poets, including Virgil and John Milton, have tried to imitate Homer's seamless narrative technique, but none have succeeded in duplicating his flawless manipulation of tightly woven incident, simple design, and panoramic scope. Access our Homer Study Guide for Free. The Iliads of Homer (translated by George Chapman) 1611. The Odyssey (translated by George Chapman) 1615. The Iliad of Homer (translated by Alexander Pope) 1715-20. The Odyssey of Homer (translated by Alexander Pope) 1726.
Homer's Iliad and Odyssey (translated by William Cowper) 1791. The Iliad of Homer (translated by William Cullen Bryant) 1870. The Odyssey of Homer (translated by William Cullen Bryant) 1871. The Iliad of Homer (translated by Andrew Lang, Walter Leaf, and Ernest Myers) 1893. The Anger of Achilles (translated by Robert Graves) 1959. The Odyssey of Homer (translated by Richard Lattimore) 1967.
The Odyssey (translated by Albert Cook) 1974. The Iliad (translated by Robert Fitzgerald) 1992. The Odyssey (translated by Free Parse Robert Fitzgerald) 1992. SOURCE: The Iliad in Homer and His Influence , Cooper Square Publishers, 1963, pp. 41-53. [ In the Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis following essay, Scott describes the Iliad as a poem about wrath and Sample Appeal Learn Letters warfare and focuses on quotations from the poem that display Homer's skill at Jf van schalkwyk evoking emotions and essay and dissertation services profound ideas. ] The first word of the Iliad is Wrath which reveals at once the kernel of the poem, since the Iliad does not depend on the fate of Achilles, but solely on his wrath. There are no unanswered questions concerning this wrath, its origin, its course, or its results; but the death of Achilles, the return of Helen, the end of the war seem hardly nearer than when the.
(The entire section is 2329 words.) Get Free Access to phd thesis this Homer Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and DEFININATION OF TEAM DYNAMICS Autosaved thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free.
SOURCE: The Man of Many Turns, in The Classic Line: A Study in Epic Poetry , Indiana University Press, 1966, pp. 120-37. [ In the Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis following essay, Cook assesses the themes, settings, and tone of the Odyssey, maintaining that the poem is lighter in archetypes, tone but equally as profound as the Iliad] The epic poem is all-embracing; it is comprehensive, rather than encyclopedic, in character. It is Jf van phd thesis, their focus, more even than their lack of verse form, which deprives Finnegans Wake or La Comedie Humaine of an epic aura, and which almost gives one to War and Peace. Custom. The distinction, while elusive, is nicely illustrated by the contrast between the.
(The entire section is 5795 words.) Get Free Access to this Homer Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: The Poetry of Action, in Homer , Duckworth, 1972, pp. 141-64. [ In the following essay, Bowra explores the dramatic quality of the Homeric epics, maintaining that although it arises from action, it often goes beyond it and touches on the character of the actors, their thoughts and their feelings as their words reveal them. ] The Iliad and the Odyssey are preeminently poems of action. Their first purpose is to engage the hearers in what happens, to involve them imaginatively in it.
In this respect they resemble not only other heroic poetry but much oral narrative verse which may be sub-heroic or shamanistic. Their main objective can be. (The entire section is 9134 words.) SOURCE: Fighting in the Iliad in The Iliad , George Allen Unwin, 1984, pp. 77-107. [In the following excerpt, Mueller discusses ways in which individual warriors are represented fighting, dying or exulting over the bodies of their enemies in the Iliad.] [My purpose in this essay] is to survey the Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis representation of battle in the Iliad , moving from the components that make up the individual encounter to the devices by Appeal Letter Learn Letters which larger narrative units are created from such encounters.… Here my chief aim is to classify phenomena and to convey a sense of their relative frequency. It is in the battle scenes that the modern reader is most likely to be. (The entire section is 8208 words.) SOURCE: Homer and the Reader, in Homer , Yale University Press, 1985, pp.
1-18. [ In the following essay, Vivante offers a stylistic analysis of Homer's epic verse, in particular, his use of recurrent images, analogies, and epithets. ] The child's first impressions on hearing Homer are as deep as they are vivid. The wrath of Achilles conjured up all at once; Achilles and Agamemnon standing out in strife against each other; Chryses suddenly appearing before the Achaeans to ransom his daughter; Chryses rebuffed and phd thesis walking in angry prayer along the shore; Apollo listening and descending from Olympus—such scenes, enacted as they are moment after moment, are naturally. (The entire section is 4741 words.) SOURCE: The Circulation of The It Girl Analytical Bodies in the Iliad, in New Literary History , Vol. 24, No.
2, Spring, 1993, pp. 339-61. [ In the following essay, Staten examines the feud between Achilles and Agamemnon in the Iliad and explores the schalkwyk socioeconomic importance of war booty, vengeance, and mourning in the poem. ] Appropriations tantamount to theft and rape: that is how Luce Irigaray characterizes the economy of capitalism [in This Sex Which is Appeal Appeal Letters, Not One , 1985], and especially its sexual economy, whose hidden essence is the essence of the whole. Women are commodities, exchange objects whose value is defined by the relationship between men, the Jf van schalkwyk phd thesis subjects of. (The entire section is 8890 words.) SOURCE: Spinning and Weaving: Ideas of Domestic Order in Homer, in American Journal of Philology , Vol.
114, No. 4, Summer, 1993, pp. Resume Resume. 493-501. [ In the following essay, Pantelia determines the function of spinning and weaving for different female characters in the Iliad and schalkwyk the Odyssey.] Spinning and weaving have traditionally been considered the domain of women. All evidence suggests that in antiquity the working of wool and the production of Essay garments were primary occupations of women, who, regardless of Jf van schalkwyk their social status—be they slaves or queens—contributed through their handiwork to the self-sufficiency of their own households. In the Homeric poems all. (The entire section is 2848 words.) Combellack, F. M. Contemporary Homeric Scholarship: Sound or Fury? The Classical Weekly 49, Nos.
2, 3, and 4 (October 24; November 14; November 28, 1955): 17-26, 29-44, 45-55. Surveys Homeric scholarship up to Parser Parse Resume Template 1955, examining the state of studies on schalkwyk such topics as orality, archeology, literary merit, sources transmission, and editions of the poems. Adkins, Arthur W. H. Homer: Free Will and Compulsion. Sample Learn. In Merit and Responsibility: A Study in Greek Values , pp. Schalkwyk Phd Thesis. 10-29. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1960. (The entire section is 1178 words.) Historians have now dug up enough facts to believe that something like the Trojan War may have really occurred. Parser Free Parse Resume. However, the story of how it began and what started it is part of Ancient Greek. Hesiod's Theogony concerns creation. More specifically, the title Theogony means birth of the divine, and Hesiod relays the schalkwyk phd thesis creation myths concerning the birth of the gods.
He describes the. A strong essay begins with a thesis statement that challenges the reader to follow the essay’s argument toward an unusual or controversial conclusion. So, if you began with “The Iliad is a. I would argue that the wrath of Achilles doesn't encompass the depth of DEFININATION WORK AND TEAM Autosaved The Iliad. Schalkwyk. To a modern reader, the Parse Resume Template Iliad is about how individual small actions lead to huge events and how no one person or. Penelope's main three characteristics are faithfulness, patience, and cunning. We can see these in Jf van, great ways.
First, she waited twenty years for her husband without ever hearing anything. Most.