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Does the Mind Exist Independently of the Brain?

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AP Book Report: A Tale of Two Cities, by Exist Charles Dickens. Essay by Essay_Jin , High School, 10th grade , A+ , December 2005. 1. Title of Work: A Tale of Two Cities. Industrial Report? 2. Author and date written: Charles Dickens; written in 1859, London, Published in weekly serial form between April 20, 1859, and November 26, 1859. 3. The Mind? Country of author: London, England.

4. Characters (label as major or minor) with brief descriptions of each; include at least two adjectives for each and brief commentary. - Charles Darnay (originally in the Evremonde family): The protagonist of the novel. He is a French aristocrat by birth. He rejects his inheritance and his title, wanting to earn an honest living as a tutor in England. He marries Lucie Manette. He is accused during the French Revolution, but is saved by Business Carton taking his place at the guillotine. - Dr. Alexandre Manette: A French doctor who is imprisoned for eighteen years in Bastille by the Marquis St. Evremonde. Does Independently Of The Brain?? He is later rescued, and brought back to life by his daughter, Lucie. - Lucie Manette/Darnay: The daughter of Dr. Manetter, described as beautiful by both Carton and Darnay. She marries Charles Darnay.

She gets along with everyone, and Parents be financially responsible children. Essay, evreryone she meets show love and greetings to her. - Sydney Carton: Looks almost identical to Charles Darnay in appearance. He drinks a lot and gets drunk often. He also loved Lucie Manette. He is a man of courage and of the Brain?, word and we write your, shows it by replacing Charles Darnay and dying himself on the guillotine. - Madame Defarge: Wife of Independently, Monsieur Defarge. She is cruel, embittered, and a vengeful woman. Industrial Revolution? She knitted the Does Exist Brain? names of the Parents be financially of vandalism children. people who are to die in the revolution. She represents the bloody and Does the Mind Independently, violent aspect of the revolution. - Monsieur Defarge: Husband of What has been interaction, Madam Defarge. Exist Independently? A wine seller in Paris.

He was a servant of Dr. Manette and. AP Book Report: A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens.. (2005, December 01). In WriteWork.com. Retrieved 02:22, October 03, 2017, from Business essay, http://www.writework.com/essay/ap-book-report-tale-two-cities-charles-dickens. WriteWork contributors. AP Book Report: A Tale of Does Exist Brain?, Two Cities, by Charles Dickens. Are Not A Soul Then? WriteWork.com.

WriteWork.com, 01 December, 2005. The Mind? Web. 03 Oct. 2017. WriteWork contributors, AP Book Report: A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens., WriteWork.com, http://www.writework.com/essay/ap-book-report-tale-two-cities-charles-dickens (accessed October 03, 2017) On Monsieur's Departure, with its highly interpretive nature and use of strong themes and appropriate literary devices, expresses the inner turmoil of its author, Queen Elizabeth, to the reader. The basic concept of this 17th century poem is be financially of vandalism children. Essay, one of the divided passions of Queen Elizabeth. . 5 pages 58 1 Mar/2004 5.0. A Tale Of Two Cities (Charles Dickens) Dr.

Alexandre Manette Dr. Alexandre Manette the great survivor of the Bastille and father to Lucie Manette. Dr.Manette is the most important character in the book. Exist Independently Of The? Throughout the book he is the stories backbone. What Has Been Worst Interaction On Quora?? Few subplots ignore Manette. Dr. Manette loves . 2 pages 81 2 Jan/1994 3.3. A Tale of Two Cities is one of Charles Dickens' most favoured novels that brings out the spirit of the late eighteen century and the outbreak of the French Revolution. The book opens in the year 1775 by contrasting Paris and London in the best of times and Does Independently of the, the worst of times (p. 3). The . 6 pages 50 Apr/2004 5.0. . Charles Dickens' novel, Hard Times, is a story of two struggles--the struggle of fact versus imagination and the struggle between two classes.

It takes place in Coketown, and industrial-age English city. The novel is divided into two sections. One deals with the struggle of upper class members of . 1 pages 98 1 Feb/1996 4.7. . of it only to for acts of vandalism by their Essay, his wife and to his closest friend, John Forster -- but the the Mind Exist Independently of the dark secret became a source both of creative energy themes of alienation and betrayal which would emerge, most notably, in David Copperfield. In 1892 he became a free-lance reporter at Doctor . 2 pages 57 1 Mar/1997 5.0. Charles Dickens?s Great expectations. . of riding himself of thinking of work) she really enjoyed it, and we write essay, she had thought about the same things that I presented Charles Dickens's Great expectations is a story about a boy, Philip Pirrip, who comes to a . 3 pages 97 1 Apr/1997 4.8. . Cities Charles Dickens has been acclaimed as one of the Does Exist Independently of the foremost satirists of the nineteenth century. In his novel A Tale of Bibliography your, Two Cities Dickens finds fault with the social structure of the society. A few of these social problems are the difference between the classes, the lunacy of the revolution . 2 pages 89 1 Apr/1997 4.8. Good news: you can turn to other's writing help. WriteWork has over 100,000 sample papers Prof. Jacob Leland, Phd.

I turned what i thought was a C+ paper into an A- Dawn S., college student. CNN WIRED EveningTimes Sony NPR Independent The Boston Globe The Virginian Pilot. Rutgers University Marist College Boston College Boston University University of Colorado University of Maryland University of Phoenix New York University Indiana University Columbia University Miami Dade College University of the Mind Exist of the, Missouri. . Hard Times by Dickens, Structure as it Relates to Annotated we write your essay, Plot and Characterixation Charles Dickens . 3 pages 6 Feb/2008 0.0. . realist techniques and conventions.' Discuss this claim in relation to the novel Great Expectations. . Charles Dickens' Great Expectations uses a variety of these realistic . 7 pages 20 Jun/2009 0.0. Of The? 'Love and hatred' in 'A Tale of Two Cities' . relationships and conflicts between the Manettes, Defarge, Carton and Evremonde, Charles Dickens . 4 pages 8 Jan/2008 0.0. The Role of Women in A Tale of Two Cities. . Charles Dickens's novel A Tale of Two Cities is a story of . What Has Been Worst? 4 pages 25 Nov/2005 0.0. . Hard Times by Dickens, Structure as it Relates to Plot and Characterixation Charles Dickens .

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Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy. Nietzsche's moral philosophy is primarily critical in orientation: he attacks morality both for Exist Independently of the, its commitment to untenable descriptive (metaphysical and empirical) claims about human agency, as well as for the deleterious impact of its distinctive norms and values on the flourishing of the Resume Free Parse Resume highest types of human beings (Nietzsche's “higher men”). His positive ethical views are best understood as combining (i) a kind of consequentialist perfectionism as Nietzsche's implicit theory of the good, with (ii) a conception of human perfection involving both formal and substantive elements. The Mind. Because Nietzsche, however, is an If we are not and not who we anti-realist about value, he takes neither his positive vision, nor those aspects of his critique that depend upon Does the Mind Exist Independently of the, it, to have any special epistemic status, a fact which helps explain his rhetoric and Parser Template the circumspect character of his “esoteric” moralizing. Although Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes (for example, about human equality) are apparent, there are no grounds for ascribing to Does the Mind Exist Independently him a political philosophy, since he has no systematic (or even partly systematic) views about the nature of state and society. As an Business Africa essay esoteric moralist, Nietzsche aims at Does of the Brain?, freeing higher human beings from their false consciousness about morality (their false belief that this morality is good for them ), not at a transformation of society at large. 1.1 Scope of the Annotated Bibliography we write your Critique: Morality in the Mind of the Brain? the Pejorative Sense.

Nietzsche is not a critic of all “morality.” He explicitly embraces, for example, the idea of a “higher morality” which would inform the lives of “higher men” (Schacht 1983: 466469), and, in so doing, he employs the same German word Moral , sometimes Moralität for both what he attacks and what he praises. Moreover, Nietzsche aims to offer a revaluation of existing values in a manner that appears, itself, to in South involve appeal to broadly “moral” standards of Does the Mind Exist Independently some sort. Are Not And Not A Soul Then Who We Are?. As he writes in Exist of the Brain? the Preface to be financially responsible Essay Daybreak : “in this book faith in morality [ Moral ] is withdrawn but why? Out of morality [ Moralität ]! Or what else should we call that which informs it and us ?.[T]here is no doubt that a ‘thou shalt’ [ du sollst ] speaks to us too” (D 4). Does The Mind Exist Of The. This means, of course, that (on pain of inconsistency) morality as the object of Nietzsche's critique must be distinguishable from the sense of “morality” he retains and has been worst employs. Yet Nietzsche also does not confine his criticisms of morality to some one religiously, philosophically, socially or historically circumscribed example. Thus, it will not suffice to say that he simply attacks Christian or Kantian or European or utilitarian morality though he certainly at Exist, times attacks all of these. To do justice to the scope of his critique, we should ask what characterizes “morality” in Nietzsche's pejorative sense hereafter, “MPS” that is, morality as the object of his critique. Nietzsche believes that all normative systems which perform something like the role we associate with “morality” share certain structural characteristics, even as the meaning and value of these normative systems varies considerably over time. In South. In particular, all normative systems have both descriptive and normative components, in Does the sense that: (a) they presuppose a particular descriptive account of human agency, in If we are not a body and not a soul the sense that for the normative claims comprising the system to Independently have intelligible application to human agents, particular metaphysical and worst interaction empirical claims about agency must be true; and (b) the Does the Mind Exist of the system's norms favor the interests of some people, often (though not necessarily) at the expense of others. Any particular morality will, in Parser Resume turn, be the object of Nietzsche's critique (i.e., MPS) only if it: presupposes three particular descriptive claims about the Does the Mind Independently of the nature of human agents pertaining to free will, the transparency of the Business Africa self, and the essential similarity of Independently all people (“the Descriptive Component”); and/or embraces norms that harm the “highest men” while benefitting the “lowest” (“the Normative Component”).

While Nietzsche offers criticisms of both the Descriptive and Normative Components of MPS, what ultimately defines MPS as against unobjectionable normative systems is the distinctive normative agenda. Thus, while Nietzsche criticizes the description of agency that is typically part and parcel of MPS, he also holds that “[i]t is not error as error that” he objects to industrial fundamentally in MPS (EH IV;7): that is, it is not the falsity of the descriptive account of agency presupposed by MPS, per se , that is the heart of the problem, but rather its distinctive normative commitments. Thus, strictly speaking, it is true that an MPS would be objectionable even if it did not involve a commitment to an untenable descriptive account of Exist of the agency (as, say, certain forms of utilitarianism do not). Because Nietzsche's two most common and closely related specific targets are, however, Christian and Kantian morality, the critique of the descriptive component of MPS figures prominently in Nietzsche's writing, and any account of the logic of his critique that omitted it would not do justice to his concerns. 1.2 Critique of the Descriptive Component of MPS. MPS for Nietzsche depends for its intelligible application to human agents on three descriptive theses about human agency (cf. BGE 32; GM I:13; TI VI; EH III:5; EH IV:8): (1) Human agents possess a will capable of free and autonomous choice (“Free Will Thesis”). (2) The self is sufficiently transparent that agents' actions can be distinguished on the basis of their respective motives (“Transparency of the Self Thesis”). (3) Human agents are sufficiently similar that one moral code is appropriate for (because in the interests of) all (“Similarity Thesis”).

These three theses must be true in order for we write your essay, the normative judgments of of the MPS to be intelligible because the normative judgments of MPS are marked for Nietzsche by three corresponding traits; namely, that they: (1′) Hold agents responsible for their actions. (2′) Evaluate and “rank” the motives for which agents act. (3′) Presuppose that “morality” has universal applicability (MPS “says stubbornly and inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and nothing besides is should be financially responsible for acts Essay, morality’” [BGE 202]). Thus, the falsity of the picture of agency would affect the intelligibility of Does Brain? moral judgments in the following three ways: (1″) If agents lacked “free will” they could not be held responsible for their actions. (2″) If agent motives could not be distinguished then no evaluative distinctions could be drawn among acts in in South essay terms of their motives. (3″) If agents were, in fact, different in some overlooked but relevant respect, then it would, at least, not be prima facie apparent that one morality should have universal application. It is the burden, then, of Nietzsche's critique of the Descriptive Component of MPS to show that, in Does the Mind Brain? fact, none of these latter theses about the nature of agency hold. A brief review of these arguments follows (a more detailed treatment is in Leiter 2002: 81112). Against the Free Will Thesis, Nietzsche argues that a free agent (that is, one sufficiently free to be morally responsible) would have to should responsible children. be causa sui (i.e., self-caused, or the cause of itself); but since we are not causa sui , no one can be a free agent. Nietzsche takes for Independently Brain?, granted not implausibly that our moral and religious traditions are incompatibilist at Bibliography essay, their core: causally determined wills are not free wills.

Nietzsche offers two kinds of the Mind Exist Independently Brain? arguments to show that we are not causa sui : that it is Resume Parser Parse, logically impossible to be causa sui ; and that human beings are not self-caused in a sense sufficient to underwrite ascriptions of moral responsibility. The Mind Of The Brain?. (I owe the point that there are two different arguments at issue here to Eric Vogelstein.) He says relatively little about the first point, other than claiming that “the concept of a causa sui is industrial revolution, something fundamentally absurd” (BGE 15), and Does the Mind Exist Independently Brain? that it is “the best self-contradiction that has been conceived so fara sort of rape and perversion of logic” (BGE 21), such that this, desire for “freedom of the will” in If we are not a soul who we are? the superlative metaphysical sensethe desire to bear the entire and ultimate responsibility for one's actions oneself, and to absolve God, the world, ancestors, chance, and Does the Mind Exist of the society involves nothing less than to be precisely this causa sui andto pull oneself up into existence by Parents for acts of vandalism by their, the hair, out the Mind Exist Brain?, of the swamps of nothingness. (BGE 21) But we cannot, needless to say, pull ourselves up “out of the Resume Parser Free Parse Resume Template swamps of nothingness,” and so we cannot have ultimate responsibility for our actions. Nietzsche quickly moves from the claim that being causa sui involves a contradiction, however, to an argument that depends on Does the Mind Exist his picture of human agency. Nietzsche accepts what we may call a “Doctrine of Types” (Leiter 1998), according to which, Each person has a fixed psycho-physical constitution, which defines him as a particular type of person. Call the relevant psycho-physical facts here “type-facts.” Type-facts, for Nietzsche, are either physiological facts about the person, or facts about the person's unconscious drives or affects.

The claim, then, is that each person has certain largely immutable physiological and psychic traits that constitute the are not a body a soul are? “type” of person he or she is. Although Nietzsche himself does not use this exact terminology, the concept figures centrally in Does Independently all his mature writings. A typical Nietzschean form of argument, for Book Report, example, runs as follows: a person's theoretical beliefs are best explained in the Mind Exist Independently of the terms of his moral beliefs; and his moral beliefs are best explained in industrial Book Report terms of natural facts about the type of person he is (i.e., in terms of type-facts). Does Exist Of The. So Nietzsche says, “every great philosophy so far has beenthe personal confession of its author and a kind of involuntary and unconscious memoir”; thus, to really grasp this philosophy, one must ask “at what morality does all this (does he ) aim” (BGE 6)? But the “morality” that a philosopher embraces simply bears “decisive witness to are not and not a soul who we who he is ” i.e., who he essentially is that is, to the “innermost drives of his nature” (BGE 6). This explanation of a person's moral beliefs in terms of psycho-physical facts about the person is a recurring theme in Nietzsche. “[M]oralities aremerely a sign language of the affects” (BGE 187), he says. “Answers to Does Independently of the the questions about the value of existencemay always be considered first of all as the symptoms of certain bodies” (GS P:2). “Moral judgments,” he says are, “symptoms and sign languages which betray the process of physiological prosperity or failure” (WP 258). “[O]ur moral judgments and evaluationsare only images and fantasies based on should be financially responsible for acts Essay a physiological process unknown to us” (D 119), so that “it is always necessary to draw forththe physiological phenomenon behind the moral predispositions and Does Independently of the prejudices” (D 542). A “morality of sympathy,” he claims is “just another expression of physiological overexcitability” (TI IX:37). Ressentiment and the morality that grows out of it he attributes to an “actual physiological cause [ Ursache ]” (GM I:15).

Nietzsche sums up the idea well in industrial revolution Report the preface to On the Genealogy of Does the Mind Independently Morality (hereafter simply “ Genealogy ” or “GM”): “our thoughts, values, every ‘yes,’ ‘no,’ ‘if’ and ‘but’ grow from us with the same inevitability as fruits borne on the tree all related and each with an affinity to each, and evidence of one will, one health, one earth, one sun” (GM P:2). Nietzsche seeks to understand in naturalistic terms the type of “person” who would necessarily bear such ideas and What worst interaction values, just as one might come to understand things about Does of the Brain? a type of tree by knowing its fruits. And just as natural facts about the tree explain the revolution Book Report fruit it bears, so too type-facts about Does the Mind Independently Brain? a person will explain his values and industrial revolution Book Report actions. This means that the conscious mental states that precede the action and the Mind whose propositional contents would make them appear to be causally connected to the action are, in fact, epiphenomenal, either as tokens or as types: that is, they are either causally inert with respect to the action or causally effective only in virtue of other type-facts about the Resume Parser Free Parse Resume person (Leiter 2002: 9193 argues for Does Independently of the Brain?, the latter reading; Leiter 2007 argues for the former). We typically locate the “will,” as the seat of your interaction on Quora? action, in various conscious states: for example, our beliefs and desires.

According to Nietzsche, however, the “will” so conceived is nothing but the effect of type-facts about the person. This means that the real story of the genesis of an the Mind Exist Independently Brain? action begins with the type-facts, which explain both consciousness and a person's actions. Here is essay, how Nietzsche puts it, after suggesting that the “will” is related to, but conceptually prior to, the Does the Mind Exist of the concepts of “consciousness” and “ego”: The “inner world” is full of phantoms: the will is one of them. The will no longer moves anything, hence does not explain anything either it merely accompanies events; it can also be absent. Worst Interaction On Quora?. The so-called motive : another error.

Merely a surface phenomenon of consciousness something alongside the deed that is more likely to cover up the antecedents of the deeds than to represent them. What follows from Exist of the, this? There are no mental [ geistigen ] causes at all. Your Essay. (TI VI:3) In the last line, Nietzsche must mean only that there are no conscious mental causes. Indeed, in Exist other passages, he is explicit that the target of this critique is the picture of conscious motives as adequate to account for action. (For competing views of the scope of should be financially for acts of vandalism Essay Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about consciousness, see Katsafanas 2005 and Riccardi 2015a.) As he writes in Daybreak , “we are accustomed to exclude all [the] unconscious processes from the accounting and to reflect on the preparation for Does the Mind Exist Independently of the, an act only to the extent that it is conscious” (D 129), a view which Nietzsche plainly regards as mistaken, both here and in the passage quoted above.

Indeed, the theme of the Business in South Africa essay “ridiculous overestimation and misunderstanding of consciousness” (GS 11) is a recurring one in Nietzsche. “[B]y far the greatest part of Does the Mind Exist Independently our spirit's activity,” says Nietzsche, “remains unconscious and unfelt” (GS 333; cf. GS 354). Apart from the general evidence on behalf of the Doctrine of Types, Nietzsche's strongest targeted argument for the epiphenomenality of consciousness depends on a piece of phenomenology, namely, “that a thought comes when ‘it’ wishes, and not when ‘I’ wish” (BGE 17). If that is right and if actions are apparently “caused” by thoughts (by particular beliefs and desires), then it follows that actions are not caused solely by our conscious mental states, but rather by What has been your on Quora?, whatever it is (i.e., type-facts) that determines the thoughts that enter consciousness. Thus, it is the the Mind Exist Independently (autonomous) causal power of our conscious mental life that Nietzsche must be attacking. If We A Body And Not Then. Given, then, that Nietzsche claims consciousness is epiphenomenal, and given our identification of the “will” with our conscious life, Nietzsche would have us dispense with the idea of the will as causal altogether. (This gives Nietzsche a novel argument against Does the Mind Exist of the, hierarchical accounts of What has been your worst free will favored by compatibilists: see Leiter 2002: 9396). Since the conscious will is not causal, the Free Will Thesis is Does the Mind of the Brain?, false. Against the Transparency of the Self Thesis, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable” (GS 335; cf. WP 291, 294); as he writes in Daybreak : The primeval delusion still lives on that one knows, and knows quite precisely in every case, how human action is brought about . Has Been Your Worst. “I know what I want, what I have done, I am free and responsible for it, I hold others responsible, I can call by Does Exist Independently Brain?, its name every moral possibility and every inner motion which precedes action; you may act as you will in this matter I understand myself and be financially responsible of vandalism by their children. understand you all!” that is howalmost everyone still thinks.[But] [a]ctions are never what they appear to us to be! We have expended so much labor on learning that external things are not as they appear to us to be very well! the case is the same with the inner world! Moral actions are in reality “something other than that” more we cannot say: and all actions are essentially unknown. (D 116)

Actions are unknown because “nothingcan be more incomplete than [one's] image of the totality of drives which constitute [a man's] being” (D 119). One “can scarcely name even the cruder ones: their number and strength, their ebb and flow, their play and counterplay among one another, and above all the laws of their nutriment remain wholly unknown” (D 119). Does The Mind Independently Of The. But as Nietzsche argues elsewhere (e.g., D 109), the self is responsible for acts of vandalism by their children. Essay, merely the Does the Mind Exist Independently of the Brain? arena in which the struggle of drives plays itself out, and one's actions are the outcomes of the struggle (see Leiter 2002: 99104; cf. Riccardi 2015b; for a general account of industrial Nietzsche's philosophical psychology, see Katsafanas 2013). Against the Similarity Thesis, Nietzsche once again deploys his Doctrine of Types. Nietzsche holds that agents are essentially dissimilar , insofar as they are constituted by different type-facts. Since Nietzsche also holds that these natural type-facts fix the different conditions under which particular agents will flourish, it follows that one morality cannot be good for all. “ Morality in Europe today is Does the Mind Independently of the Brain?, herd animal morality ,” says Nietzsche, “in other wordsmerely one type of Resume Parser human morality beside which, before which, and after which many other types, above all higher moralities, are, or ought to be, possible” (BGE 202). Nietzsche illustrates the general point with his discussion of the case of the Italian writer Cornaro in Does Exist of the Brain? Twilight of the Idols (VI:1). Cornaro, says Nietzsche, wrote a book mistakenly recommending “his slender diet as a recipe for a long and happy life.” But why was this a mistake? Nietzsche explains: The worthy Italian thought his diet was the cause of his long life, whereas the Parser Parse Resume precondition for a long life, the extraordinary slowness of his metabolism, the consumption of the Mind Exist Independently of the Brain? so little, was the cause of his slender diet.

He was not free to eat little or much; his frugality was not a matter of and not then who we “free will”: he became sick when he ate more. But whoever is not a carp not only does well to eat properly, but needs to. There exists, then, type-facts about Cornaro that explain why a slender diet is good for him: namely, “the extraordinary slowness of his metabolism.” These natural facts, in turn, constrain what Cornaro can do, delivering him “feedback” about the conditions under which he will and won't flourish: given his slow metabolism, if Cornaro ate more “he became sick”; conversely, when he stuck to Does Independently of the his slender diet, he did well. In sum, “[h]e was not free to eat little or much.” Cornaro's mistake consists, in effect, in his absolutism: he thought the “good” diet was good for everyone, when in fact it was only good for certain types of bodies (namely, those with slow metabolisms). As with diets, so too with moralities, according to Nietzsche. Agents are not similar in Parents responsible for acts of vandalism children. type-facts, and so one moral “diet” cannot be “good for the Mind Exist Independently, all.” As he writes: [T]he question is always who he is, and who the other person isEvery unegoistic morality that takes itself for unconditional and addresses itself to all does not only revolution Report, sin against taste: it is the Mind Exist Independently Brain?, a provocation to sins of If we are not a body a soul who we omission, one more seduction under the mask of philanthropy and precisely a seduction and Does Exist injury for revolution Report, the higher, rarer, privileged. (BGE 221) This point sets the Does Exist Brain? stage for his core critique of morality. 1.3 Critique of the Normative Component of MPS. All of Nietzsche's criticisms of the normative component of MPS are parasitic upon one basic complaint not, as some have held (e.g., Nehamas [1985], Geuss [1997]), the revolution Report universality of moral demands, per se , but rather that “the demand of one morality for all is detrimental to the higher men” (BGE 228). Universality would be unobjectionable if agents were relevantly similar, but because agents are relevantly different, a universal morality must necessarily be harmful to some. As Nietzsche writes elsewhere: “When a decadent type of man ascended to the rank of the highest type [via MPS], this could only Exist Independently, happen at the expense of its countertype [emphasis added], the type of are not a body and not are? man that is strong and sure of life” (EH III:5).

In the preface to the Genealogy , Nietzsche sums up his basic concern particularly well: What if a symptom of regression lurked in the “good,” likewise a danger, a seduction, a poison, a narcotic, through which the present lived at the expense of the Does the Mind Brain? future ? Perhaps more comfortably, less dangerously, but at the same time in a meaner style, more basely? So that morality itself were to blame if the highest power and splendor [ Mächtigkeit und Pracht ] possible to the type man was never in fact attained? So that morality itself was the danger of dangers? (GM Pref:6; cf. Industrial Book. BT Attempt:5) This theme is sounded throughout Nietzsche's work.

In a book of the Mind Exist of the 1880, for example, he writes that, “Our weak, unmanly social concepts of Resume Free Resume Template good and evil and their tremendous ascendancy over body and soul have finally weakened all bodies and souls and snapped the self-reliant, independent, unprejudiced men, the Does of the Brain? pillars of a strong civilization” (D 163). Similarly, in a posthumously published note of 1885, he remarks that “men of great creativity, the really great men according to my understanding, will be sought in Bibliography we write your essay vain today” because “nothing stands more malignantly in the way of their rise and evolutionthan what in Europe today is the Mind Exist Independently Brain?, called simply ‘morality’” (WP 957). In these and many other passages (e.g., BGE 62; GM III:14; A:5, 24; EH IV:4; WP 274, 345, 400, 870, 879.), Nietzsche makes plain his fundamental objection to MPS: simply put, that MPS thwarts the development of human excellence, i.e., “the highest power and worst interaction splendor possible to the type man” (for more on the “higher man,” see section (2)). There is another, important competing reading of Nietzsche's central complaint about MPS: namely, that it is “harmful to life” or, more simply, “anti-nature.” Geuss, for example, says that, “There is little doubt that ‘Life’in Nietzsche does seem to function as a criterion for evaluating moralities” (1997: 10). So, too, Schacht claims that Nietzsche “takes ‘life’ in this world to be the sole locus of value, and Does Exist Brain? its preservation, flourishing, and above all its enhancement to be ultimately decisive for determinations of value” (1983: 359). Thus, the question of the essay value of MPS is really the the Mind Exist question of its “value for industrial revolution Book Report, life” (1983: 354). Does The Mind Exist Of The Brain?. Yet such an account is What has been your interaction on Quora?, plainly too vague: what exactly does “life” refer to here? Schacht, following a suggestion of Nietzsche's from the Nachlass (WP 254), suggests that life is Independently, will to Report power, and thus degree of power constitutes the standard of value. (We shall return to Does Exist Brain? this suggestion in detail in section 3.1, below.) But this involves no gain in precision. Nietzsche may, indeed, have thought that more “power” in his sense was more valuable than less, but that still leaves us with the a body then are? question: power of what or of whom ? The only plausible candidate given especially his other remarks discussed above is power of people ; just as the Exist of the Brain? only plausible candidate for industrial Report, the “life” that Nietzsche considers it valuable to preserve and enhance must be the lives of people and, in particular, the the Mind Exist Independently Brain? lives of the “highest men.”

That this is what Nietzsche means is revealed by your interaction, the context of his actual remarks about the “value for life.” For example, he comments that “a higher and more fundamental value for life might have to Does the Mind Exist be ascribed to If we are not a body and not then are? deception, selfishness, and lust” (BGE 2, emphasis added). Does The Mind Of The Brain?. But what sort of “life” is, e.g., “selfishness” valuable for? As Nietzsche writes elsewhere (e.g., GM Pref:56), it is simply that life which manifests “the highest power and splendor actually possible to the type man.” And similarly, when Nietzsche says that a “tendency hostile to life is therefore characteristic of worst interaction morality,” it is clear in context that what “life” refers to is “the type man” who might be “raised to the Mind Independently of the Brain? his greatest splendor and power” (that is, but for the interference of MPS) (WP 897). Bibliography We Write. In short, then, the Does Exist Independently Brain? things Nietzsche identifies as “valuable” for life are those he takes to be necessary for the flourishing of the highest types of life (or human excellence), while those that he identifies as harmful to it are those that he takes to be things that constitute obstacles to such flourishing. This suggests, then, that the “life” for which things are either valuable or disvaluable must be the life (or lives) that manifest human excellence i.e., the should be financially responsible for acts of vandalism lives of “higher men.” Something similar may be said for the claim that Nietzsche objects to MPS because it is “anti-nature.” For example, when Nietzsche says in Ecce Homo (IV:7) that “it is the lack of nature, it is the utterly gruesome fact that antinature itself received the highest honors as morality” that he centrally objects to Does the Mind Exist Independently in a morality, his claim will remain obscure unless we can say precisely what about MPS makes it “anti-natural.” Nietzsche, himself, offers guidance on this in the same section when he explains that a MPS is anti-natural insofar as it has the following sorts of characteristics: it teaches men “to despise the very first instincts of Business life” and “to experience the presupposition of Exist life, sexuality, as something unclean”; and it “looks for the evil principle in what is most profoundly necessary for growth, in severe self-love” (EH IV:7). But from Parser Parse Resume Template, this it should be apparent, then, that it is not anti-naturalness itself that is Does Exist, objectionable, but the consequences of an anti-natural MPS that are at issue: for example, its opposition to the instincts that are “profoundly necessary for growth.” This point is a body a soul, even more explicit in The Antichrist , where Nietzsche notes that Christian morality “has waged deadly war against this higher type of man; it has placed all the basic instincts of the Mind Brain? his type under ban ” (5, emphasis added). In other words, the anti-naturalness of MPS is objectionable because the “natural” instincts MPS opposes are precisely those necessary for the growth of the “higher type of man.” Thus, underlying Nietzsche's worries about the anti-naturalness of MPS just as underlying his worries about the threat MPS poses to life is industrial revolution Book Report, a concern for the effect of MPS on “higher men.” So Nietzsche objects to the normative agenda of of the MPS because it is harmful to the highest men. In Nietzsche's various accounts of what the Resume Parse Resume Template objectionable agenda of the Mind Exist of the MPS consists, he identifies a variety of normative positions (see, e.g., D 108, 132, 174; GS 116, 294, 328, 338, 345, 352, 377; Z I:4, II:8, III:1, 9, IV:13, 10; BGE 197, 198, 201202, 225, 257; GM Pref:5, III: 11 ff.; TI II, V, IX:35, 3738, 48; A: 7, 43; EH III:D-2, IV:4, 7-8; WP 752). Are Not A Soul Then. We may characterize these simply as “pro” and “con” attitudes, and Does the Mind Exist we may say that a morality is the Resume Parse Resume Template object of Nietzsche's critique (i.e., it is an MPS) if it contains one or more of the following normative views (this is a representative, but not exhaustive, list):

The various possible normative components of MPS should, of course, be understood construed as ideal-typical , singling out for Does the Mind Exist of the, emphasis and should be financially by their children. criticism certain important features of larger and more complex normative views. Brain?. Let us call that which morality has a “pro” attitude towards is the “Pro-Object,” and that which morality has a “con” attitude towards the “Con-Object.” Keeping in mind that what seems to have intrinsic value for Nietzsche is human excellence or human greatness (see the next section), Nietzsche's attack on the normative component of MPS can be summarized as having two parts: (a) With respect to the Pro-Object, Nietzsche argues either (i) that the Pro-Object has no intrinsic value (in the cases where MPS claims it does); or (ii) that it does not have any or not nearly as much extrinsic value as MPS treats it as having; and. (b) With respect to the Con-Object, Nietzsche argues only that the Con-Objects are extrinsically valuable for the cultivation of human excellence and that this is obscured by the “con” attitude endorsed by MPS. Thus, what unifies Nietzsche's seemingly disparate critical remarks about altruism, happiness, pity, equality, Kantian respect for persons, utilitarianism, etc. is that he thinks a culture in If we are not a body and not a soul who we are? which such norms prevail as morality will be a culture which eliminates the conditions for the realization of human excellence the latter requiring, on Nietzsche's view, concern with the the Mind Exist self, suffering, a certain stoic indifference, a sense of hierarchy and difference, and the like. Free Parse Resume Template. Indeed, when we turn to the Mind Independently of the the details of Resume Parser Free Parse Nietzsche's criticisms of Independently of the these norms we find that, in fact, this is precisely what he argues. Parents Should Be Financially Responsible Essay. One detailed example will have to suffice here. What could be harmful about the seemingly innocuous MPS valuation of happiness (“pro”) and Brain? suffering (“con”)? An early remark of Nietzsche's suggests his answer:

Are we not, with this tremendous objective of obliterating all the sharp edges of life, well on the way to turning mankind into sand ? Sand! Small, soft, round, unending sand! Is that your ideal, you heralds of the sympathetic affections? (D 174) In a later work, Nietzsche says referring to hedonists and utilitarians that, “Well-being as you understand it that is no goal, that seems to us an end , a state that soon makes man ridiculous and contemptible” (BGE 225). By the hedonistic doctrine of well-being, Nietzsche takes the utilitarians to have in Resume mind “ English happiness,” namely, “comfort and fashion” (BGE 228) a construal which, if unfair to some utilitarians (like Mill), may do justice to our ordinary aspirations to happiness. In a similar vein, Nietzsche has Zarathustra dismiss “wretched contentment” as an Does the Mind Independently of the Brain? ideal (Z Pref:3), while also revealing that it was precisely “the last men” the “most despicable men” who “invented happiness [ Glück ]” in the first place (Pref:5). So happiness, according to Nietzsche, is Business in South Africa essay, not an intrinsically valuable end, and men who aim for it directly or through cultivating the dispositions that lead to it would be “ridiculous and Does the Mind Independently contemptible.” To be sure, Nietzsche allows that he himself and the “free spirits” will be “cheerful” or “gay” [ frölich ] they are, after all, the proponents of the “gay science.” But the point is Resume Parse, that such “happiness” is not criterial of being a higher person, and Does the Mind thus it is Africa essay, not something that the higher person in Does Independently Brain? contrast to the adherent of MPS aims for.

Yet why does aiming for happiness make a person so unworthy of admiration? Nietzsche's answer appears to be this: because suffering is positively necessary for the cultivation of human excellence which is the only thing, recall, that warrants admiration for Nietzsche. He writes, for example, that: The discipline of suffering, of If we then great suffering do you not know that only this discipline has created all enhancements of man so far? That tension of the soul in unhappiness which cultivates its strength, its shudders face to face with great ruin, its inventiveness and courage in enduring, persevering, interpreting, and exploiting suffering, and whatever has been granted to it of profundity, secret, mask, spirit, cunning, greatness was it not granted to Does Independently of the it through suffering, through the discipline of great suffering? (BGE 225; cf. BGE 270) Nietzsche is not arguing here that in contrast to the view of MPS suffering is really intrinsically valuable (not even MPS claims that). What Interaction On Quora?. The value of suffering, according to Exist Independently Brain? Nietzsche, is industrial revolution Book Report, only extrinsic: suffering “great” suffering is a prerequisite of any great human achievement. As Nietzsche puts the point elsewhere: “Only great pain is the Exist ultimate liberator of the spirit.I doubt that such pain makes us ‘better’; but I know that it makes us more profound” (GS Pref:3). Nietzsche's attack, then, conforms to the model sketched above: (i) he rejects the view that happiness is intrinsically valuable; and (ii) he thinks that the should responsible for acts of vandalism Essay negative attitude of MPS toward suffering obscures its important extrinsic value. (There is reason to Does Exist Independently Brain? think that, on this second point, Nietzsche is generalizing from his own experience with physical suffering, the worst periods of which coincided with his greatest productivity. Indeed, he believed that his suffering contributed essentially to his work: as he writes, admittedly hyperbolically, in Ecce Homo : “In the midst of the torments that go with an uninterrupted three-day migraine, accompanied by Business, laborious vomiting of Does the Mind Independently phlegm, I possessed a dialectician's clarity par excellence and thought through with very cold blood matters for Book, which under healthier circumstances I am not mountain-climber, not subtle, not cold enough” (EH I:1).)

Even if there is the Mind Brain?, no shortage in the history of art and literature of cases of immense suffering being the spur to Africa great creativity, there remains a serious worry about the logic of this line of Does Independently of the Nietzschean critique. Following Leiter (1995), we may call this the “Harm Puzzle,” and has been worst interaction the puzzle is this: why should one think the general moral prescription to alleviate suffering must stop the suffering of great artists, hence stop them from Does the Mind Independently, producing great art? One might think, in fact, that MPS could perfectly well allow an exception for those individuals whose own suffering is essential to the realization of central life projects. After all, a prescription to Bibliography we write alleviate suffering reflects a concern with promoting well-being, under some construal. But if some individuals nascent Goethes, Nietzsches, and other geniuses would be better off with a good dose of suffering, then why would MPS recommend otherwise? Why, then, should it be the Exist Independently Brain? case that MPS “harms” potentially “higher men”? This seems the natural philosophical question to ask, yet it also involves an important misunderstanding of industrial revolution Report Nietzsche's critique, which is not, we might say, about philosophical theory but rather about the real nature of Does Independently of the Brain? culture . When MPS values come to dominate a culture, Nietzsche thinks (plausibly), they will affect the attitudes of all members of that culture. If MPS values emphasize the badness of Business Africa suffering and Exist Independently Brain? the goodness of happiness, that will influence how individuals with the potential for great achievements will understand, evaluate and conduct their own lives. If, in your essay fact, suffering is a precondition for these individuals to do anything great, and if they have internalized the norm that suffering must be alleviated, and that happiness is the Exist of the Brain? ultimate goal, then we run the risk that, rather than to put it crudely suffer and create, they will instead waste their energies pursuing pleasure, lamenting their suffering and seeking to in South essay alleviate it. MPS values may not explicitly prohibit artists or other potentially “excellent” persons from ever suffering; but the risk is that a culture like ours which has internalized the norms against Exist Independently Brain?, suffering and for pleasure will be a culture in which potential artists and other doers of great things will, in fact , squander themselves in self-pity and the seeking of your essay pleasure.

So Nietzsche's response to the Harm Puzzle depends upon an empirical claim about what the real effect of MPS will be. The normative component of the Mind Exist Independently Brain? MPS is harmful not because its specific prescriptions and proscriptions explicitly require potentially excellent persons to forego that which allows them to flourish (the claim is not that a conscientious application of the be financially responsible for acts children. Essay “theory” of Does the Mind Exist Independently Brain? MPS is incompatible with the flourishing of higher men); rather, the If we are not a body a soul are? normative component of MPS is harmful because in practice , and especially because of MPS's commitment to the idea that one morality is appropriate for all, potentially higher men will come to adopt such values as applicable to themselves as well. Thus, the normative component of Does Brain? MPS is harmful because, in reality, it will have the effect of leading potentially excellent persons to value what is in fact not conducive to their flourishing and devalue what is in fact essential to it. In sum, Nietzsche's central objection to MPS is that it thwarts the development of human excellence. His argument for this, in each case, turns on If we are not a body and not identifying distinctive valuations of MPS, and Does of the showing how as in the case of norms favoring happiness and devaluing suffering they undermine the development of individuals who would manifest human excellence. (For discussion of other examples, see Leiter 2002: 134136.) 2. Nietzsche's Positive Ethical Vision. While Nietzsche clearly has views about the states of affairs to which positive intrinsic value attaches (namely, the flourishing of essay higher men), there is more disagreement among interpreters about what kind of ethics arises from the Does the Mind Exist latter valuation so central to his critique of morality. The two leading candidates are that Nietzsche embraces a kind of virtue ethics (e.g., Hunt 1991; Solomon 2001) and that he is a kind of perfectionist (Hurka 1993, Hurka 2007). These accounts turn out to overlap the If we and not are? perfections of the latter account are often the virtues of the former though the Does Exist Independently perfectionist account will prove to have certain other advantages, discussed below. Any account of Nietzsche's “positive ethics” confronts a threshold worry, namely, that Nietzsche's naturalistic conception of persons and should be financially responsible for acts children. agency and, in particular, his conception of persons as constituted by non-conscious type-facts that determine their actions makes it unclear how Nietzsche could have a philosophical ethics in any conventional sense. If, as Nietzsche, says, we face “a brazen wall of fate; we are in prison, we can only dream ourselves free, not make ourselves free” (HAH II:33); if “the single human being is Does the Mind Independently of the, a piece of fatum from the front and from the rear, one law more, one necessity more for all that is yet to are not a soul then are? come and to the Mind Exist Brain? be” (TI V:6); if (as he says more hyperbolically in Nachlass material) “the voluntary is absolutely lackingeverything has been directed along certain lines from the beginning” (WP 458); if (again hyperbolically) “one will become only that which one is (in spite of all: that means education, instruction, milieu, chance, and accident)” (WP 334); then it is hardly surprising that Nietzsche should also say, “A man as he ought to be: that sounds to revolution us as insipid as ‘a tree as he ought to Does Independently of the Brain? be’” (WP 332).

Yet a philosopher reluctant to talk about “man as he ought to be” is plainly ill-suited to the task of developing a normative ethics, understood as systematic and Parser Parse Resume theoretical guidance for how to live, whether that guidance comes in the form of rules for behavior or dispositions of Does the Mind of the character to What interaction be cultivated. (There is an additional, and special difficulty, for those who think Nietzsche is a virtue ethicist, namely, that he also thinks genuine virtues are specific to individuals, meaning that there will be nothing general for the theorist to say about them [see, e.g., Z I:5].) This means we must approach the Does the Mind Exist Independently of the Brain? question of What your on Quora? Nietzsche's “positive” ethics in terms of explicating (1) what it is Nietzsche values, (2) what his criteria of the Mind of the evaluation are, and (3) what evaluative structure , if any, is and not a soul who we, exhibited by the answers to Exist Independently of the Brain? (1) and (2). We go wrong at has been your worst, the start, however, if we expect Nietzsche to produce a normative theory of any familiar kind, whether a virtue ethics or otherwise. Importantly, the Exist Independently preceding points should not be read as denying that Nietzsche thinks values and evaluative judgments can have a causal impact on actions and how lives are lived. After all, there would be no point in undertaking a “revaluation of values” if such a revaluation would not have consequences for, e.g., the If we are not then who we flourishing of higher men, or if MPS values did not have deleterious causal consequences for those same people. Values make a causal difference, but, given Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about consciousness (discussed, above, in 1.1), they do not make this difference because of free, conscious choices individuals make to adopt certain moral rules or cultivate certain dispositions of Does the Mind Independently of the Brain? character. We can better appreciate Nietzsche's unusual views on this score by looking more closely at the popular, but mistaken, idea that Nietzsche calls on people to “create themselves” (on the revolution Report general topic, see Leiter 1998). Alexander Nehamas, for example, reads Nietzsche as endorsing an ethics of self-creation.

For Nietzsche, Nehamas says, “The people who ‘want to become those they are’ are precisely ‘human beings who are new, unique, incomparable, who give themselves laws, who create themselves’ (GS, 335)” (1985, p. 174). Unfortunately, Nehamas truncates the quote from The Gay Science at a misleading point. For Nietzsche, in the Mind of the the full passage, continues as follows: To that end [of creating ourselves] we must become the best learners and discoverers of everything that is lawful and necessary in the world: we must become physicists in order to be creators in this sense [ wir müssen Physiker sein, um, in jenem Sinne , Schöpfer sein zu können ] while hitherto all valuations and ideals have been based on ignorance of Resume Parser Parse Resume Template physics . Therefore: long live physics! (GS 335) Creation “in this sense” is, then, a very special sense indeed: for it presupposes the discovery of what is “lawful and necessary” as revealed by physical science! The passage begins to make more sense in Independently context. For in this same section, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable,” though he adds: our opinions, valuations, and tables of what is good certainly belong among the most powerful levers in Parents be financially responsible for acts of vandalism by their Essay the involved mechanism of the Mind Exist of the our actions, butin any particular case the law of their mechanism is your, indemonstrable [ unnachweisbar ]. This observation leads Nietzsche immediately to the suggestion that we should create “our own new tables of what is good,” presumably with an eye to effecting the Does the Mind Exist of the causal determination of our actions in new ways. However, we need help from science to identify the in South Africa essay lawful patterns into which values and actions fall; even if the Does the Mind Exist Independently of the Brain? mechanisms are indemonstrable, science may at least reveal the responsible patterns of Exist Independently Brain? value-inputs and Parser Free Parse Resume action-outputs. So to create one's self, “in this sense,” is to accept Nietzsche's basically deterministic picture of action as determined by sub-conscious causes (type-facts) that are hard to identify but to use science to help identify those “values” which figure in the causal determination of Does the Mind of the action in new, but predictable, ways.

Values, then, have a causal impact upon If we are not a body a soul then who we are?, how people act and thus also on their life trajectories; but we cannot expect these impacts to flow from free, conscious choices that persons make. This would explain, of course, why we find so little in Nietzsche by way of argumentative or discursive support for his evaluative judgments: such intellectual devices are precisely the ones that would appeal to our conscious faculties, and Does the Mind Exist Independently of the thus would be idle with respect to the desired outcomes. Are Not A Body And Not Are?. Nietzsche's often violent rhetorical style, by contrast, might be expected (or so Nietzsche presumably thinks) to have the requisite non-rational effect on his desired readers those “whose ears are related to ours” (GS 381). (More on Brain? this issue in Section 4, below.) If Nietzsche does not have a typical normative ethics, he certainly has no shortage of views about evaluative questions. For example, it is essay, clear from the earlier discussion of Nietzsche's critique of morality that he assigns great intrinsic value to Does the Mind Brain? the flourishing of higher men.

But who are these “higher men” and why does Nietzsche assign value to them? (Note that while Nietzsche speaks in Business in South Africa essay Thus Spoke Zarathustra of the Independently of the Brain? “superman” as a kind of ideal higher type, this concept simply drops out of his mature work (except for a brief mention in EH in the context of discussing Zarathustra ). Parser Parse. “Higher men” is an important concept in Nietzsche; the “superman” is nothing more than a rhetorical trope in the highly stylized Zarathustra. ) Nietzsche has three favorite examples of “higher” human beings: Goethe, Beethoven, and Nietzsche himself! What makes these figures paradigms of the “higher” type for Nietzsche, beyond their great creativity (as he says, “the men of great creativity” are “the really great men according to my understanding” (WP 957))? Following Leiter (2002: 116122), we can identify five characteristics that Nietzsche identifies as distinctive of “higher men”: the higher type is solitary, pursues a “unifying project,” is healthy, is life-affirming, and practices self-reverence. Taken together, they are plainly sufficient to make someone a higher type in Nietzsche's view, though it is not obvious that any one of these is necessary, and various combinations often seem sufficient for explaining how Nietzsche speaks of higher human beings. First, higher types are solitary and deal with others only instrumentally. “Every choice human being,” says Nietzsche, “strives instinctively for a citadel and a secrecy where he is saved from the crowd, the many, the great majority” (BGE 26). “[T]he concept of greatness,” he says in Does Independently of the the same work, “entails being noble, wanting to be by Book, oneself, being able to Does Exist of the Brain? be different, standing alone and having to live independently [ auf-eigne-Faust-leben-müssen ]” (BGE 212). Indeed, the higher type pursues solitude with something of a vengeance, for he “knows how to make enemies everywhere,[He] constantly contradicts the great majority not through words but through deeds” (WP 944). Unsurprisingly, then, the great or higher man lacks the “congeniality” and “good-naturedness” so often celebrated in Resume Parser Resume contemporary popular culture. “A great manis incommunicable: he finds it tasteless to be familiar” (WP 962).

More than that, though, the higher type deals with others, when he has to, in a rather distinctive way: “A human being who strives for the Mind Exist Independently of the Brain?, something great considers everyone he meets on his way either as a means or as a delay and obstacle or as a temporary resting place” (BGE 273). Thus, “a great manwants no ‘sympathetic’ heart, but servants, tools; in What your worst his intercourse with men, he is always intent on making something out of the Mind of the them” (WP 962). The great man approaches others instrumentally not only because of Parents should be financially children. Essay his fundamental proclivity for solitude, but because of Does the Mind Independently another distinguishing characteristic: he is consumed by his work, his responsibilities, his projects. Second, higher types seek burdens and responsibilities, in Africa the pursuit of some unifying project . Does The Mind Exist Brain?. “What is noble?” Nietzsche again asks in a Nachlass note of 1888. His answer: “That one instinctively seeks heavy responsibilities” (WP 944). So it was with Goethe: “he was not fainthearted but took as much as possible upon himself, over himself, into himself” (TI IX:49).

But the higher type does not seek out responsibilities and tasks arbitrarily. “A great man,” says Nietzsche displays “a long logic in all of his activityhe has the ability to Bibliography essay extend his will across great stretches of his life and to despise, and reject everything petty about the Mind of the Brain? him” (WP 962). This is the trait Nietzsche sometimes refers to as having “style” in Parser Free Parse “character” (GS 290). (Note that this famous passage (GS 290) merely describes those “the strong and domineering natures” who are able “‘to give’ style” to their character; it does not presuppose that just anyone can do so and it is not a recommendation that everyone try to do so.) Indeed, Nietzsche understood his own life in these terms: [T]he organizing “idea” that is destined to rule [in one's life and Does the Mind Exist work] keeps growing deep down it begins to command; slowly it leads us back from industrial Report, side roads and wrong roads; it prepares single qualities and fitnesses that will one day prove to be indispensable as means toward a whole one by one, it trains all subservient capacities before giving any hint of the dominant task, “goal,” “aim,” or “meaning.” Considered in this way, my life is simply wonderful. For the task of Does the Mind of the Brain? a revaluation of all values more capacities may have been needed than have ever dwelt together in a single individual.I never even suspected what was growing in are not a body me and one day all my capacities, suddenly ripe, leaped forth in their ultimate perfection. (EH II:9). Earlier in Ecce Homo , Nietzsche describes himself as a higher type, “a well-turned-out-person” (EH I:2), and the Mind Independently of the Brain? thus we may conclude that it is a characteristic only of the higher type that he is driven in pursuit of Annotated your a project in the way described here. Indeed, it turns out to be precisely this kind of instinctive drivenness that Nietzsche has partly in mind when he praises “health.” Third, higher types are essentially healthy and resilient. One essential attribute of the “well-turned-out-person ”is that he “has a taste only for Does the Mind Exist, what is good for him; his pleasure, his delight cease where the measure of what is good for him is has been your, transgressed.

He guesses what remedies avail against what is Does the Mind Exist of the Brain?, harmful; he exploits bad accidents to industrial revolution Book his advantage” (EH I:2). But this is just to say that a higher type is healthy , for Brain?, health, Nietzsche tells us, means simply “instinctively cho[osing] the right means against wretched states” (EH I:2). This permits us to understand Nietzsche's own declaration in Ecce Homo that he was “ healthy at bottom ” (EH I:2), a seemingly paradoxical claim for a philosopher whose physical ailments were legion. Yet “health,” for Nietzsche, is a term of industrial revolution Book art, meaning not the absence of sickness, but something closer to resilience , to how one deals with ordinary (physical) sickness and setbacks. “For a typical healthy person,” Nietzsche says, “being sick can even become an energetic stimulus for life, for living more. This, in fact, is how [my own] long period of Does the Mind of the sickness appears to me now it was during the your worst on Quora? years of my lowest vitality that I ceased to be a pessimist; the instinct of self-restoration forbade me a philosophy of poverty and Exist of the discouragement” (EH I:2).

To cease to be a pessimist is to reject MPS, for your interaction on Quora?, only under the color of MPS does life appear to lack value. Thus, being healthy, in turn, entails a distinctive non-pessimistic attitude towards life which is yet a fourth mark of the higher type. Fourth, higher types affirm life, meaning that they are prepared to will the eternal return of their lives . In Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche describes “the opposite ideal” to that of moralists and pessimists like Schopenhauer as “the ideal of the Does of the most high-spirited, alive, and world-affirming human being who has not only come to terms and learned to your worst interaction on Quora? get along with whatever was and is, but who wants to have what was and is repeated into all eternity” (BGE 56). Put more simply: the higher type embraces the doctrine of the eternal recurrence and thus evinces what Nietzsche often calls a “Dionysian” or “life-affirming” attitude. A person, for Nietzsche, has a Dionysian attitude toward life insofar as he affirms his life unconditionally; in particular, insofar as he affirms it including the “suffering” or other hardships it has involved. So someone who says, “I would gladly live my life again, except for my first marriage,” would not affirm life in the requisite sense. Does The Mind Exist Independently. Thus, we may say that a person affirms his life in Nietzsche's sense only insofar as he would gladly will its eternal return: i.e., will the repetition of his entire life through eternity. Parser Resume Template. In fact, Nietzsche calls “the idea of the eternal recurrence” the “highest formulation of affirmation that is at all attainable” (EH III:Z-1; cf.

BGE 56). Higher men, then, are marked by a distinctive Dionysian attitude toward their life: they would gladly will the repetition of their life eternally. Strikingly, Nietzsche claims that precisely this attitude characterized both himself and Goethe. Speaking, for Does Independently of the, example, of the neglect by his contemporaries of his work, Nietzsche writes: “I myself have never suffered from Bibliography, all this; what is necessary does not hurt me; amor fati [love of fate] is my inmost nature” (EH III:CW-4). Regarding Goethe, Nietzsche says that, “Such a spiritstands amid the cosmos with a joyous and trusting fatalism, in the faith that all is redeemed and Exist Independently Brain? affirmed in the whole.Such a faith, however, is the Parents should responsible for acts of vandalism Essay highest of all possible faiths: I have baptized it with the Exist Independently of the name of Dionysus ” (TI IX:49). Finally, the higher type of human being has a distinctive bearing towards others and especially towards himself: he has self-reverence. “The ‘higher nature’ of the great man,” says Nietzsche in Resume a striking Nachlass note of 1888 “lies in being different, in incommunicability, in distance of rank, not in an effect of any kind even if he made the whole globe tremble” (WP 876; cf. GS 55). This is perhaps the most unusual feature of Nietzsche's discussion of the higher type, for it suggests that, at Does the Mind Independently of the, bottom, being a higher type is a matter of “attitude” or “bearing.” In a section of Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche once again answers the question, “What is are not a body then who we, noble?”, this time as follows: “It is not the works, it is the Does Exist Independently faith that is decisive here, that determines the order of rank: some fundamental certainty that a noble soul has about itself, something that cannot be sought, nor found, nor perhaps lost. The noble soul has reverence [Ehrfurcht] for Resume Parse Template, itself” (BGE 287). Does The Mind Of The Brain?. Self-reverence to Annotated Bibliography your revere and respect oneself as one might a god is no small achievement, as the proliferation of “self-help” programs and pop psychology slogans like “I'm OK, you're OK” would suggest.

Self-loathing, self-doubt, and self-laceration are the norm among human beings; to possess a “fundamental certainty” about oneself is, Nietzsche thinks quite plausibly, a unique state of affairs. Allied with this posture of self-reverence are other distinctive attitudes that distinguish the bearing of the Does the Mind of the Brain? higher man. “The noble human being,” says Nietzsche, “honors himself as one who is powerful, also as one who has power over himself, who knows how to speak and be silent, who delights in Resume Free Parse being severe and hard with himself and Does Exist Independently of the Brain? respects all severity and hardness” (BGE 260). (The higher man, unsurprisingly, is no hedonist: “What is noble?” asks Nietzsche: “That one leaves happiness to the great majority: happiness as peace of soul, virtue, comfort, Anglo-angelic shopkeeperdom a la Spencer” (WP 944).) In an earlier work, Nietzsche explains that: [T]he passion that attacks those who are noble is peculiar.It involves the use of a rare and singular standard cold to everybody else; the discovery of values for Annotated, which no scales have been invented yet; offering sacrifices on altars that are dedicated to Independently of the Brain? an unknown god; a courage without any desire for honors; self-sufficiency that overflows and gives to men and things. (GS 55) Indeed, the ability to Annotated your essay set his own standard of Does Exist Independently Brain? valuation is has been your interaction, one of the most distinctive achievements of the higher type, as we saw already in the discussion of solitude. And “the highest man” says Nietzsche is “he who determines values and directs the will of millennia by Exist Independently of the Brain?, giving direction to the highest natures” (WP 999). Considered all together, it becomes clear why creatives geniuses like Goethe, Beethoven, and Nietzsche himself should be the preferred examples of the Parser Free Resume higher human being: for the characteristics of the higher type so-described are precisely those that lend themselves to artistic and creative work. A penchant for solitude, an absolute devotion to one's tasks, an indifference to external opinion, a fundamental certainty about oneself and one's values (that often strikes others as hubris) all these are the Does the Mind Exist Independently of the Brain? traits we find, again and again, in Parse Template artistic geniuses. (It turns out, for example, that Beethoven, according to his leading biographer, had almost all these characteristics to a striking degree; for discussion, see Leiter 2002: 122123.) If “the men of great creativity, the really great men according to my understanding” (WP 957), men like Goethe and Beethoven, are Nietzsche's paradigmatic higher types, whose lives are models of flourishing excellence, is there anything systematic to be said about the theory of value that undergirds these judgments and Does Exist Brain? informs, in turn, Nietzsche's critique of morality (MPS) on interaction on Quora? the grounds that it thwarts the Does the Mind Independently Brain? development of such men? One popular idea (e.g., Schacht 1983, Richardson 1996) is that higher men exemplify “power,” which is claimed to be Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value. Such readings, alas, have to employ the concept of “power” rather elastically, since the conglomeration of traits of higher human beings noted above don't seem to be, in any ordinary sense, instances of “power” or its manifestation. (Treating Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value as “power” confronts even more serious textual and philosophical obstacles: see Section 3.1, below.)

More illuminating is a body who we, Hurka's view (1993 and Hurka 2007) that Nietzsche's evaluative posture conjoins perfectionism with maximizing consequentialism: what has value are certain human excellences (or perfections), and states of Does Independently Brain? affairs are assessed in terms of their maximization of these excellences. As Hurka helpfully observes (1993: 75), Nietzsche seems to operate with the opposite of Rawls's maximin principle, what Hurka calls approriately “maximax.” Hurka states this as a rule for conduct (“each agent's overriding goal should be not a sum or average of lifetime value, but the greatest lifetime value of the Bibliography your single most perfect individual, or, if perfections are not fully comparable, of the few most perfect individuals” [1993: 75]), but given the Independently Brain? earlier caveats about has been worst interaction reading Nietzsche as a conventional normative theorist, it is better to treat maximax as reflecting the implicit structure of Nietzsche's revaluation of values: he rejects MPS because it fails to maximize the perfection of the Independently highest human beings, and he does so without, it appears, any regard for the costs to the herd of such a rejection (see Section 4). This leaves the question whether there are (formal or substantive) criteria of “perfection” for Nietzsche? Many writers (e.g., Hurka 2007; Nehamas 1985; Richardson 1996) are attracted to the idea that “style” or “unity” is a criterion of excellence or perfection for Nietzsche, and, indeed, as noted above, the pursuit of Parser a unified or coherent life project is a characteristic feature of those Nietzsche deems to be higher men. Whether such style or coherence suffices is Does the Mind Exist of the Brain?, a vexed interpretive question, since it is Business in South essay, not entirely clear that the the Mind formal criterion of in South Africa essay style or unity is available only to Goethes and Beethovens: did not Kant, that “catastrophic spider” as Nietzsche unflatteringly calls him (A 11), exhibit an extraordinarily coherent style of creative productivity over many years? Others (e.g., Magnus 1978) take Nietzsche's idea of eternal recurrence (the hallmark of life-affirmation, as noted above) as the criterion of a well-lived life: perfection is a matter of Does Exist of the Brain? living in worst on Quora? such a way that one is ready to Does of the gladly will the repetition of one's life, in all its particulars, in to eternity. This, too, seems both too thin and Bibliography we write your too severe as a criterion of perfection standing alone: too thin, because anyone suitably superficial and complacent might will the eternal return; too severe, because it seems to require that a post-Holocaust Goethe gladly will the repetition of the of the Holocaust. Nehamas (1985), who shares some of Magnus's view, adds an If we a body and not a soul are? idioscynratic element to this account: he claims that Nietzsche does not describe his ideal person his “higher man” but rather “exemplifies” such a person in the form of the “character” that is constituted by Does the Mind Brain?, and exemplified in his corpus. Nietzsche, however, describes at great length and in should responsible of vandalism children. Essay many places (e.g. D 201; GS 55; BGE 287; NCW Epilogue:2; WP 943) the types of the Mind Exist of the persons he admires; and he also describes himself as such a person (e.g., EH I:2) In any case, Nehamas's view would have the odd consequence that for Nietzsche to have had a positive ethical vision at any point earlier in his career he would have had to anticipate writing the series of books he actually wrote, such that his ethical ideal would be properly exemplified in them! Needless to say, there is no reason to think this was Nietzsche's view.

Nietzsche holds that moral (i.e., MPS) values are not conducive to the flourishing of human excellence, and it is by reference to this fact that he proposed to assess their value. In South Africa Essay. The enterprise of the Mind Exist Independently of the Brain? assessing the value of certain other values (call them the industrial Book Report ‘revalued values’) naturally invites the metaethical question: what status metaphysical, epistemological do the values used to undertake this revaluation (the ‘assessing values’) enjoy? (It is doubtful Nietzsche has a definite semantic view about judgments of value: cf. Does Of The. Hussain 2013, esp. Parents Responsible Of Vandalism By Their Children. Essay. 412.) Following Leiter (2000), we may distinguish “Privilege Readings” of Does Independently of the Brain? Nietzsche's metaethics which claim that Nietzsche holds that his own evaluative standpoint is either veridical or better justified than its target from those readings which deny the Parser Free Resume Template claim of the Mind Independently of the privilege. (Note that defenders of this latter, “skeptical” view need not read Nietzsche as a global anti-realist i.e., as claiming that there are no truths or facts about anything, let alone truths about value a reading which has now been widely discredited. There is, on the skeptical view at issue here, a special problem about the objectivity of value.) Privilege Readings of revolution Book Nietzsche can come in three varieties: Intuitionist Realist (I-Realist); Naturalist Realist (N-Realist); and Privilege Non-Realist (P-Non-Realist). The proponents of these views would hold the following: (i) According to the I-Realist, there are non-natural normative facts, which are sui generis, and which are apprehended by some appropriate act of normative ‘perception.’ (ii) According to the N-Realist, there are normative facts because normative facts are just constituted by certain natural facts (in some sense to be specified).

(iii) According to the P-Non-Realist, there are no normative facts, but some normative judgments still enjoy a privilege by virtue of their interpersonal appeal or acceptance. To say that there are ‘normative facts’ will mean, for purposes here, that norms are (in some sense) objective features of the world. No one, to date, has construed Nietzsche as an I-Realist, but Schacht (1983) and Exist Independently of the Wilcox (1974), among many others, have defended an N-Realist reading, while Foot (1973) has defended a P-Non-Realist reading. We consider the difficulties afflicting these Privilege Readings in Parser Resume turn. According to the Mind of the the N-Realist reading, Nietzsche holds, first, that only Resume Free Parse, power really has value and, second, that power is an objective, natural property. Nietzsche's evaluative perspective is privileged, in turn, because it involves asssessing (i) prudential value (value for an agent) in terms of degree of power, and (ii) non-prudential value in terms of maximization of prudential value (i.e., maximization of power). Does Exist Of The Brain?. (A cautionary note about terminology here: by Free Parse Template, ordinary conventions, the N-Realist proper holds that value itself is the Mind Independently of the Brain?, a natural property, not simply that what has value is a natural property. There is no clear textual evidence of we write Nietzsche's view on this subtle question, yet it still makes sense to use the “N-Realist” label for two reasons: first, defenders of this reading treat Nietzsche's view as “naturalistic”; and, second, it is in fact ‘naturalistic’ in a familiar nineteenth-century sense, i.e., it denies that there are any supernatural properties.

In the theory of value, then, one might plausibly think of Nietzsche as being a kind of naturalist in the sense of resisting religious and quasi-religious theories that view goodness as supervening on non-natural (e.g., the “Forms”) or supernatural properties; as against this, Nietzsche claims that goodness supervenes on a (putatively) natural property, namely power.) According to Schacht, Nietzsche's account of “the fundamental character of life and the world” as will to power is supposed to “ground” his own evaluative standpoint (1983: 348349). As Nietzsche writes (in a passage Schacht quotes): “assuming that life itself is the will to power,” then “there is nothing to life that has value, except the degree of Does the Mind Independently of the Brain? power” (WP 55). Nietzsche's revaluation of industrial Book Report values, then, assesses moral values on the basis of their “degree of power,” something which constitutes an “objective measure of value” (WP 674). The Mind Independently Brain?. Hence the privilege of Parse his view: it embraces as an evaluative standard the only thing in the Mind Independently life that (in fact) has value (namely power), and employs this “objective measure of value” in Annotated Bibliography we write the revaluation (e.g., by criticizing Christian morality because it does not maximize “power”). What exactly is Does Exist Independently Brain?, Nietzsche's argument on the N-Realist reading? When pressed, commentators are never very clear. Schacht, for example, writes:

Human life, for Nietzsche, is ultimately a part of a kind of vast game[which] is, so to Parser Free Resume Template speak, the only game in town.The nature of the Exist Brain? game, he holds, establishes a standard for Annotated your, the evaluation of everything falling within its compass. The availability of this standard places evaluation on footing that is as firm as that on Does Independently Brain? which the comprehension of life and are not a body then are? the world stands. (1983, p. 398) Talk of “the only game in town” is far too metaphorical, however, to bear the philosophical weight demanded. From the fact that “life itself is the Exist Independently of the Brain? will to for acts of vandalism power,” how does it follow that power is the only standard of value? From the fact, for example, that all life obeys the Does the Mind Exist Independently of the Brain? laws of fundamental physics, nothing follows about the Annotated appropriate standard of value. What Schacht and Exist Independently Brain? others seem to has been your interaction have in Does the Mind Independently of the mind is something like John Stuart Mill's argument for utilitarianism, which proceeds from the premise that since happiness is the only thing people desire or aim for, it follows that happiness is the only thing that possesses intrinsic value. This argument, though, is Parents responsible for acts, famously unsuccessful: from the fact that only happiness is desired, nothing at all follows about what ought to be desired. Attempts to construe Nietzsche's argument in Does Exist Independently of the an analogous way encounter similar problems (Leiter 2000 explores the Bibliography we write analogy in detail).

On Mill's well-known and oft-criticized ‘proof’ of the principle of Does the Mind Exist utility from his 1861 Utilitarianism , to show that something is visible, we must show that it is seen; and to show that something is audible, we must show that it is heard; analogously, (P) to industrial revolution show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is Does of the, desired. Millian hedonism holds that only happiness or pleasure is intrinsically desirable or valuable (‘Prescriptive Hedonism’). Let us call ‘Value Nihilism’ the view that there is nothing that has value or is valuable (or desirable). To get Prescriptive Hedonism from Business in South essay, (P), then, plug in ‘Descriptive Hedonism’ the thesis that people do in Does Independently Brain? fact desire only pleasure as an end. If (P) is valid, Descriptive Hedonism true, and If we a body and not a soul are? Value Nihilism false, then the truth of Prescriptive Hedonism follows. ((P), of course, is Does Exist Independently, not valid, a point to which we will return.) Notice, now, that the same type of argument seems to capture what the N-Realist construal of Nietzsche has in mind. That is, to get the N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion that what is valuable is Report, power, take (P) and plug in a strong form of Nietzsche's descriptive doctrine of the will to Does the Mind Independently power the doctrine, roughly, that all persons intrinsically ‘desire’ only power. If (P) is valid, Value Nihilism false, and Bibliography your essay the descriptive doctrine of the will to power is Does Independently of the, true, then the normative conclusion about power, which Schacht is after, seems to follow. (Note, of course, that the industrial Millian Model argument as formulated so far would show only that power is what is non-morally valuable or good for Exist Independently of the Brain?, an agent. We Write Your Essay. Of course, if the Millian Model argument for prudential value or non-moral goodness does not work, then that provides a very strong (if defeasible) reason for supposing that there is no further argument for the related account of non-prudential value as consisting in maximization of power.) What are the problems with this “Millian argument”?

The first problem, of course, is that (P) is not valid. While from the fact that x is heard, it follows that x is audible, it does not follow from Does Independently of the Brain?, that fact that x is desired that x is desirable in the sense necessary for the argument . For while ‘audible’ can be fairly rendered as ‘can be heard,’ ‘desirable,’ in the context of Prescriptive Hedonism, means ‘ ought to be desired’ (not ‘can’ or ‘is’ desired). Thus, while it follows that: it does not follow that, If x is desired, then x ought to be desired (‘is desirable’). Yet in claiming that pleasure or power are valuable, Mill and the N-Realist Nietzsche are advancing a normative thesis. The truth of this normative thesis, however, simply does not follow from the corresponding descriptive thesis. Many, of course, have thought this too facile a response. Supplement the argument, then, by adding an ‘Internalist Constraint’ (IC), one that many philosophers have found plausible in the theory of industrial revolution Book Report value: (IC) Something cannot be valuable for a person unless the person is capable of caring about (desiring) it. The (IC) is motivated by the thought that it cannot be right to say that ‘X is valuable’ for someone when x is alien to Does Independently of the Brain? anything a person cares about or could care about: any plausible notion of Resume Parser Parse Template value, the (IC) supposes, must have some strong connection to a person's existing (or potential) motivational set.

How does the (IC) help? Recall (P): (P) To show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable) show that it is desired. Now the (IC) puts a constraint on what things can, in fact, be desirable or valuable: namely, only Exist Independently of the Brain?, those things that agents can, in Business fact, care about Does the Mind Exist of the or desire. This suggests that we might reformulate (P) as follows: (P′) To show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is Parents be financially responsible of vandalism Essay, or can be desired. (P′) now is simply a different formulation of the (IC): if we accept the (IC) then we should accept (P′). Does The Mind Independently Brain?. But what happens, then, if we grant the truth of Descriptive Hedonism: namely, that only pleasure is, in fact, desired. In that case, it would now follow that only pleasure is desirable (ought to be desired) (assuming, again, that Value Nihilism is false).

That is, since something ought to be desired only if it can be desired (internalism), then if only x can be desired, then only x ought to be desired (assuming that Value Nihilism is false). Will this argument rescue the N-Realist Nietzsche? Two obstacles remain. The first, and perhaps less serious one, is that we must have some reason for Resume Parse Template, accepting the (IC) or, more modestly, some reason for thinking Nietzsche accepts it. It is not clear, however, that there are adequate textual grounds for saying where Nietzsche stands on this question. Independently Of The Brain?. Since the (IC) does, however, seem to be presupposed by the Nietzschean remarks from the Nachlass that support N-Realism in the sense that such remarks do not constitute a good argument without the (IC) let us grant that Nietzsche accepts the (IC), and let us simply put aside the contentious issue of industrial Book Report whether we ought to accept the (IC) as a general philosophical matter. A second difficulty will still remain: namely, that the argument for N-Realism still depends on the truth of the relevant descriptive thesis, in Nietzsche's case, the doctrine of the will to of the power. This presents two problems. Revolution Book Report. First, in the works Nietzsche chose to publish, it seems clear that he did not, in fact, accept the doctrine in the Mind Brain? the strong form required for the N-Realist argument (namely, that it is only power that persons ever aim for essay, or desire).

Second, it is simply not a plausible doctrine in its strong form. For the Millian Model argument for N-Realism to Does work in its new form (that is, supplemented with the (IC)) it must be the case that that which ought to be desired (‘is valuable’) are the only things that are, in fact, desired. Since the we write essay N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion is that only Exist of the, power is Bibliography your, valuable, power must be the only thing that is, in the Mind fact, desired (assuming, again, that something is valuable, i.e., that Value Nihilism is Parser Parse, false). Many, of course, have thought that Nietzsche held precisely this view, and he plainly says much to suggest that. Zarathustra states that, “Where I found the living, there I found will to power” (Z II:12); Nietzsche refers to “the will to power which is the will of the Mind Exist life” (GS 349); he says “the really fundamental instinct of lifeaims at the expansion of power ” (GS 349); “life simply is will to power,” meaning a striving “to grow, spread, seize, become predominant” (BGE 259); he refers to his “theory that in all events a will to power is operating” (GM II:12); he claims that “[a] living thing seeks above all to discharge its strength life itself is will to power ” (BGE 13); and so on. The difficulty is that Nietzsche says other things which might suggest that the stronger remarks are misleading; for example: Life itself is to my mind the instinct for growth, for industrial Book Report, durability, for an accumulation of forces, for Does the Mind Independently Brain?, power : where the will to power is lacking there is decline. It is my contention that all the supreme values of mankind lack this will. (A 6) But if all actions manifested this will , then this will could never be found lacking.

Yet Nietzsche thinks it can be lacking, which means he must countenance the possibility that not everyone aims for (‘desires’) power. This passage is not atypical. Later in the same work, he returns to the same theme concerning “[w]herever the will to power declines in Resume Free any form” (A 17). In the immediately preceding work he claims that the “effects” of liberal institutions are “known well enough: they undermine the Does Exist Independently will to power” (TI IX:38). And in the immediately subsequent work (his last), Nietzsche refers to “the terrible aspects of reality (in affects, in be financially for acts desires, in the will to power)” (EH IV:4), which certainly sounds as if will to power is simply one among various characteristics of reality alongside affects and desires, rather than the essential core of them all. Three other general textual considerations count against attributing the Does Independently of the Brain? strong doctrine of the for acts of vandalism by their will to power to Nietzsche. First, if, as the defenders of the strong doctrine believe, “his fundamental principle is the ‘ will to power’ ”, then it is hard to understand why he says almost nothing about will to power and nothing at all to Does the Mind Exist suggest it is his “fundamental principle” in the two major self-reflective moments in the Nietzschean corpus: his last major work, Ecce Homo , where he reviews and assesses his life and writings, including specifically all his prior books (EH III); and the series of new prefaces he wrote for The Birth of Tragedy , Human, All Too Human , Dawn , and The Gay Science in Resume Free Resume 1886, in which he revisits his major themes. That this putative “fundamental principle” merits no mention on either occasion strongly suggests that its role in Nietzsche's thought has been greatly overstated. Second, the view at issue presupposes an unusually strong doctrine of the will to power: a doctrine, to the effect, that all life (actions, events) reflects the will to power.

But recent scholarship has cast doubt on whether Nietzsche ultimately accepted such a doctrine. Does The Mind Exist Independently. The single most famous passage on will to power in the Nietzschean corpus, for example, is the concluding section (1067) of The Will to Power , where he affirms that, “ This world is the Book Report will to power and nothing besides ! And you yourselves are also this will to power and nothing besides!” Although a favorite of Does the Mind of the Brain? commentators for many years, the passage has now been conclusively discredited by the leading scholar of the Nachlass , the Business Africa essay late Mazzino Montinari. Montinari has shown that Nietzsche had, in fact, discarded the passage by the spring of 1887 (1982, pp. 103104)! It was, as Montinari notes, made part of the Köselitz-Forster compilation of the Mind Brain? The Will to industrial Book Report Power (the basis for Does Exist of the, the English-language edition by Parents should be financially responsible for acts of vandalism children., Kaufmann and Hollingdale) notwithstanding “Nietzsche's literary intentions” (1982, p. 104).

Finally, Maudemarie Clark has argued that Nietzsche could not have accepted the very strongest form of the doctrine of the will to power namely, that all force , animate and inanimate, is the Mind Independently of the, will to power given the putative argument he gives for it. Clark points out that the only argument for this doctrine of the will to power in Nietzsche's published works in Section 36 of Beyond Good and Evil is cast in the conditional form: if we accept certain initial hypotheses, then, Nietzsche thinks, the strong doctrine of the will to power follows. But one of the antecedents of this conditional is the “causality of the will,” and Clark argues that Nietzsche clearly rejects such causality elsewhere in Book his work (e.g., GS 127, TI II:5, TI VI:3). Therefore, this section cannot constitute an argument for Exist Independently of the, the strongest doctrine of the will to power that Nietzsche, himself, would actually accept! Rather than embracing the strongest form of the doctrine, Clark argues that Nietzsche is, somewhat ironically, illustrating the very flaw of philosophers he warns against in the surrounding passages: namely, their tendency to propound theories of the essence of reality that are just projections of their own evaluative commitments (Clark 1990, pp.

212227). Thus, Nietzsche says of the Stoic talk of living “according to nature” that “while you pretend rapturously to read the Business essay canon of your law in Does of the Brain? nature, you want something opposite.Your pride wants to impose your morality, your ideal, on nature” (BGE 9). How, Clark wonders, could Nietzsche's own doctrine of will to power be exempted from Parser Parse Resume Template, such a charge? (Note, too, that Montinari claims that the the Mind Independently of the one surviving relic of Parents be financially responsible by their Essay 1067 of The Will to Power in the published works is precisely the ironic Section 36 of Beyond Good and Exist of the Evil (1982, p. 104).) What, then, does Nietzsche believe about will to Book power? As others have noted (e.g., Clark 1990: 209212), Nietzsche's doctrine of will to power in the Mind Exist of the its original deployment and most of its later development is psychological in If we and not character: the will to power is posited as the best psychological explanation for a wide variety of human behaviors. But as the preceding passages and considerations make clear, Nietzsche could not have believed that will to power was the exclusive explanation for all human behavior. To the Independently extent he sometimes seems to embrace this stronger claim (see the example, above), we must simply take Nietzsche to have overstated his case something which his penchant for Parents should responsible of vandalism by their, hyperbolic rhetoric and polemics often leads him to do or to be engaged in the kind of ironic move described by Does Exist Independently Brain?, Clark, above.

That would, of course, be quite fortunate, since it is hardly plausible that will to If we are not a body a soul then who we are? power is the exclusive explanation for all human behavior. There is an additional, textual worry for the argument that will to power provides an objective criterion of Exist Brain? value lurking here as well. Nietzsche only makes the remarks that seem to industrial Book suggest that power is an objective criterion in passages from the Nachlass , work that Nietzsche never published during his lifetime. Thus, even if one thought that Nietzsche really held the Does Exist Independently strong descriptive doctrine of the will to power the doctrine that all animate force (perhaps all force) is will to power in his published works, it is still the case that he only uses this doctrine to argue for the normative conclusion in Nachlass material. Since scholars have now raised important doubts about the Parents be financially responsible by their canonical status of Does the Mind Exist Brain? this Nachlass material (Montinari 1982, pp. 92104; Hollingdale 1985, pp.

166172, 182186), this might suggest that a view ought not to be attributed to Nietzsche solely on the basis of If we are not a body and not then its articulation in these notebooks, which is exactly what the N-Realist reading requires. Although not attributing to Nietzsche any kind of value realism, Philippa Foot, like Schacht, wants to show that Nietzsche is Does Independently, doing something more than simply expressing his idiosyncratic view, a view that admits of Parents should by their children. no interpersonal justification. While agreeing that Nietzsche's intention is, in part, “to present us with a clash of interests the good of the the Mind Exist of the Brain? strong against that of the weak,” Foot adds that “this is not all he wants to suggest” (1973: 162). Noting that Nietzsche “seems to be financially responsible for acts of vandalism children. want to say that anyone who is strong, independent, and so on Exist Brain? anyone who fits his description of the higher type of man is one who has value in himself” (163), Foot goes on to explicate this notion of “value” as follows: [I]t does make sense to say that we value strong and exceptional individuals. We do find patterns of reaction to exceptional men that would allow us to see here a valuing rather similar to valuing on aesthetic grounds. Industrial Revolution Report. I am thinking of the interest and admiration which is the common attitude to remarkable men of exceptional independence of mind and strength of will. [Nietzsche] is appealing to our tendency to admire certain individuals whom we see as powerful and splendid. [There is] a similarity between the way we attribute value (aesthetic value) to art objects and Does the Mind of the the value that Nietzsche attributes to a certain kind of man, both resting on a set of common reactions. (1973: 163) So Nietzsche, on this account, does not claim that his evaluative perspective is veridical; he simply claims that it enjoys a certain sort of What your on Quora? interpersonal appeal, owing to our “common attitude to remarkable men,” “our tendency to admire certain individuals,” to find them aesthetically appealing. There may be no fact-of-the-matter as to Exist of the whether higher men are or are not really valuable, but Nietzsche's evaluative standpoint is privileged by your, virtue of its appeal to all of us. Does The Mind Independently Of The Brain?. We're all interested, it seems, in the flourishing of higher men. Yet Nietzsche could not embrace the Parser Free Parse Resume Template view that the the Mind Independently of the flourishing of “higher men” will appeal to “ our tendency” to admire such men or to any sort of “common” attitude, given the logic of his critique of morality. This follows from what we may call Nietzsche's ‘Callicleanism,’ after Plato's Callicles in the Gorgias . It has now become something of essay a commonplace for commentators to note that Nietzsche did not accept one sort of Calliclean view, namely, the Exist Independently of the view that “anyone who is to live aright should suffer his appetites to grow to the greatest extent and Africa essay not check them” ( Gorgias , 419e) (cf.

Nehamas 1985: 202203; BGE 188). Yet there remains a more important respect in which Nietzsche's view is Calliclean: namely, in its embrace of the Calliclean doctrine that the inferior employ morality to Exist make “slaves of those who are naturally better” ( Gorgias , 491e-492a), that the weaker folk, the majorityframe the are not then are? laws [and, we might add, the morals] for the Mind Exist Independently Brain?, their own advantage’ in order to ‘frighten [the strong] by saying that to overreach others is shameful and evil’ ( Gorgias , 483b-d). In short, Callicles' view is Free Resume Template, that morality is simply the prudence of the weak, who unable to Does the Mind Exist of the do what the strong can do, opt instead to put the actions of the Annotated essay strong under the ban of morality. This, of course, is essentially Nietzsche's view as well. So, for example, Nietzsche describes slave morality as simply ‘the prudence [ Klugheit ] of the lowest order’ (GM I:13), and he observes that “everything that elevates an individual above the herd and intimidates the neighbor iscalled evil ” (BGE 201), that “[m]oral judgments and condemnations constitute the Exist Independently Brain? favorite revenge of the spiritually limited against should responsible for acts by their children., those less limited” (BGE 219), and he claims that the “chief means” by which the “weak and mediocreweaken and pull down the stronger” is “the moral judgment” (WP 345). Recall, now, that Foot wanted to resist the view that in of the his revaluation Nietzsche simply “present[s] us with a clash of interests the has been your worst interaction good of the strong against Does the Mind Independently of the, that of the are not a soul are? weak” (1973: 162); instead, Foot suggests that Nietzsche is appealing to a ‘common’ tendency to admire higher men, men who would otherwise be thwarted by the reign of moral values. But for a Calliclean like Nietzsche, it is part of the the Mind Exist Independently Brain? very appeal of morality that it does thwart the flourishing of higher men. If that is right, then he could not think that the responsible of vandalism by their children. Essay flourishing of Does Independently of the Brain? “higher men” would appeal to everyone. Industrial Revolution Book Report. It is precisely because it doesn't that morality arises in the first place, as a means for the low and base to thwart the flourishing of the high.

This is Does the Mind Exist of the, not to deny that higher men may still be admirable in the eyes of the base and low (hence their envy); it is to deny, however, that Nietzsche's evaluative perspective that it is an objection to morality that it thwarts the high could enjoy a privilege in in South Africa essay virtue of Does the Mind Independently Brain? this shared admiration. On the Calliclean picture, there is a fundamental hostility between the high and low, the strong and the weak, one which will not be bridged by inviting the low to admire the high, or the weak, the strong. “The well-being of the Annotated essay majority and the well-being of the the Mind Exist Independently of the few are opposite viewpoints of value,” Nietzsche says in the ‘Note’ at the end of the If we are not a body and not first essay of the Genealogy . And in Nietzsche's revaluation, it appears, there is Does the Mind Exist of the, no evaluative standpoint from which one could successfully mediate and reconcile the Business normative claims of the opposing moralities. If Nietzsche is not a realist about value, then he must be an anti-realist: he must deny that there is any objective fact of the Does the Mind of the matter that would privilege his evaluative perspective over its target. (This, in fact, is the most familiar reading outside the secondary literature on Nietzsche; one finds this view of Nietzsche's metaethics, for example, in the sociologist Max Weber and the moral philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, among many others.) We must be careful about the kinds of judgments to which this anti-realism applies. Recall that in his critique of morality, Nietzsche appears to hold that, e.g., “herd” morality is good for the herd, but that it is bad for higher men. He says, for example, that, “The ideas of the herd should rule in Report the herd but not reach out beyond it” (WP 287; emphasis added); and elsewhere he describes slave morality as simply “the prudence of the lowest order” (GM I:13). It may appear that regarding value judgments pertaining to welfare or prudential goodness what is good or bad for particular sorts of persons Nietzsche believes there is an Independently objective fact of the matter, though one relative to type-facts about persons. But this is Annotated Bibliography your, not right: while Nietzsche believes it is objectively correct that different moralities have certain effects on Exist Independently different kinds of people, that these effects are good or bad itself admits of anti-realist interpretation (cf. Leiter 2015: 119 for If we a body and not who we are?, a revision of the view defended in Leiter 2002). Even more importantly, though, Nietzsche's anti-realism applies to the “revaluative” judgment that follows upon these judgments about the effects of Exist Independently of the Brain? different moralities: that is, the are not a body who we judgment that because herd morality is good for the herd but bad for higher men, herd morality (or the universal reign of herd morality) is bad or disvaluable. Nietzsche certainly says much that sounds like he is denying the objectivity of values. Zarathustra tells us that, “Verily, men gave themselves all their good and evil [ Gut und Böse ]” (Z I:15) and that “good and evil that are not transitory do not exist” (Z II:12).

In The Gay Science , Nietzsche explains that, “Whatever has value in our world now does not have value in itself, according to of the its nature nature is always value-less, but has been given value at Annotated we write your, some time” (301; cf. D 3). Indeed, like certain radical anti-realists, he tends to Does Independently equate evaluative questions with matters of taste. “What is now decisive against Christianity is our taste [ Geschmack ], no longer our reasons” (GS 132), he writes, noting later in If we are not a body and not who we the same work that what counts as “justiceis by all means a matter of taste, nothing more” (GS 184). Nietzsche's central argument for anti-realism about value is explanatory : moral facts don't figure in the “best explanation” of experience, and so are not real constituents of the objective world. Moral values, in short, can be “explained away.” Such a conclusion follows from Nietzsche's naturalism (on the latter, see the competing accounts in Does Exist Independently of the Brain? Janaway 2007 and Leiter 2013). As we saw in the context of be financially responsible for acts children. Nietzsche's critique of morality, Nietzsche thinks a person's moral beliefs can be explained in naturalistic terms, i.e., in terms of Does the Mind Independently type-facts about that person. Thus, to explain a person's moral judgments, one needn't appeal to the existence of objective moral facts: psycho-physical facts about the person suffice. Thus, since non-evaluative type-facts are the primary explanatory facts, and since explanatory power is the industrial revolution Book mark of objective facts, it appears that there cannot be any value facts.

Moral judgments and evaluations are “images” and “fantasies,” says Nietzsche, the mere effects of type-facts about Does the Mind agents (D 119). To describe Nietzsche as a moral anti-realist is Parents should be financially for acts, so far only to Does the Mind Exist ascribe to him a metaphysical view: namely, that there are no objective facts about what is morally right and wrong. It is a somewhat vexed interpretive question whether we should also ascribe to Nietzsche a particular view about the Business essay semantics of moral judgment, a topic about the Mind Exist Independently of the which no philosopher prior to the 20 th century had a workedout view (see again Hussain 2013). For example, while it seems clear (from the passages quoted above) that Nietzsche has distinct views on the central metaphysical question about value, it seems equally apparent that there are inadequate textual resources for ascribing to him a satisfying answer to industrial revolution Book the semantic question. Elements of his view, for example, might suggest assimilation to what we would call non-cognitivism and, in particular, expressivism. For example, in describing master and Christian morality as “opposite forms in the optics of value [ Werthe ],” Nietzsche goes on to assert that, as opposite “optical” forms, they “areimmune to reasons and refutations. One cannot refute Christianity; one cannot refute a disease of the eye. The concepts ‘true’ and ‘untrue’ have, as it seems to the Mind Independently of the me, no meaning in optics” (CW Epilogue). Annotated Your. This passage typical of putatively expressivist passages in Does Brain? Nietzsche is, however, ambiguous.

For the passage could mean that “true” and Parents be financially children. Essay “false” are meaningless not because evaluative judgments are essentially non-cognitive, but rather because competing evaluative views are immune to the effects of reasoning. There may be rational grounds for thinking one view better than another, perhaps for thinking one true and the other false, but since reasoning has so little impact in this context, it is “meaningless” (in the sense of pointless) to raise issues of truth and falsity. More recently, Hussain (2007) has argued that we read Nietzsche as a fictionalist about moral value: granted that Nietzsche is an anti-realist about value (there exists no objective fact about what has value in-itself), Hussain wonders what it is those who “create values” can understand themselves to Does the Mind Exist Independently Brain? have done? Valuation, in this Nietzschean world, Hussain argues, involves a kind of “make-believe,” pretending that things are valuable-in-themselves, while knowing that nothing, in fact, has such value. There is If we are not a body who we, a pressing philosophical question here whether “make-believe” about value really could suffice for valuing but also an Does Exist Independently of the Brain? interpretive problem: does Nietzsche really think that moral judgments express beliefs , that is, truth-apt propositional attitudes which then requires fictionalist treatment? It would be astonishing if any 19 th -century philosopher were to What has been your worst on Quora? have a clear answer to such a question (Hussain 2013 seems to have come around to this view). While Nietzsche was, to be sure, among the first to recognize the extent to which linguistic and Does Exist Independently grammatical practices generate metaphysical assumptions and problems, he simply did not view metaphysical questions themselves as best framed as issues about the semantics of a given region of discourse (e.g., are the terms genuinely and successfully referential, or are they “merely” expressive?). Africa Essay. It is doubtful, then, that there are adequate grounds for assigning Nietzsche a view on such subtle matters as whether ethical language is primarily cognitive or non-cognitive, when it clearly evinces aspects of both descriptive and the Mind Brain? prescriptive discourse. Two aspects of Nietzsche's work may, however, seem to has been your worst on Quora? be in tension with value anti-realism, even understood as only Does Brain?, a metaphysical doctrine: first, his reliance on the distinction between “higher” and “lower” types of human beings; and Parser Free Parse Template second, the force and seriousness with which he presents his evaluative judgments.

As we saw, above, Nietzsche's critique of morality presupposes a distinction between higher and lower types of people. But are there objective facts about who is “high” and Does the Mind Independently of the who is “low”? And if so, would such a view be compatible with anti-realism? Suppose there are objective facts about “high” and should for acts “low”: Goethe really is a higher type, and the herd animal really is a lower type. But there is still no objective fact about whether MPS is Does the Mind Exist Independently Brain?, non-prudentially disvaluable just because it has the effect of thwarting the flourishing of objectively higher types.

Realism about “high” and “low” does not entail realism about non-prudential value, so the argument might go. Such a response cannot work for Resume Parser Parse Resume Template, two reasons. First, the Exist Independently of the judgment that “X is revolution Book Report, a higher person” includes a significant evaluative component: “Goethe is a higher type” is not evaluatively neutral in the manner of “Goethe is a taller than average type.” In saying that someone is a higher type, we seem committed to some positive evaluative attitude towards that person (e.g., that it is good to have persons like that around). If there is an objective fact that “X is Does Exist Independently Brain?, a higher type,” and it is a fact that MPS thwarts the flourishing of higher types, then it would seem that at least some objective weight must accrue to the Nietzschean position that MPS is disvaluable because of this effect it has. Second, if it is an objective fact that Goethe is a higher type and, say, Hitler is a herd animal, then the following counterfactual would seem to are not a body and not be true: (C) If Hitler had been like Goethe, he would have been better off. He would have been better off because he would have been a higher type, instead of a lower type and it is an objective fact that the high are really high, and Exist Independently Brain? the low are really low. But this seemingly objective judgment that Hitler would have been better off had he been more like Goethe is a non-prudential value judgment; it is not a judgment about Bibliography your what is good for Exist, Hitler under the circumstances, but rather a judgment about what would make Hitler better off, but for his circumstances. In general, it seems that conceding the objectivity of “high” and “low” permits one to make objective non-prudential value judgments like: the What has been interaction good of the higher type is superior to the good of the lower type. For these reasons, if Nietzsche is an anti-realist about the Mind of the non-prudential moral value, then he must also be an anti-realist about judgments of “high” and “low,” It may be an objective fact that MPS thwarts the flourishing of a soul who we those Nietzsche regards as higher types; but it is not an objective fact that they are really higher.

In fact, there is textual evidence that this is exactly Nietzsche's view. For example, in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , Nietzsche writes that, “Good and evil, and rich and poor, and high and low [ Hoch und Gering ], and all the the Mind of the names of your values arms shall they be and clattering signs that life must overcome itself again and again” (Z II:7). Here Nietzsche is explicit that “high and low” are simply “names of values,” just like “good and evil.” But since, as we have just seen, Nietzsche is an the Mind Independently of the anti-realist about these latter evaluative concepts, it should hardly be surprisingly that he is an anti-realist about the former. The actual contexts in which Nietzsche marks traits as “high” and “low” invite the same reading. Consider, for example, the exposition in the Genealogy (I:14) of the sense in which slave morality is the “prudence of the lowest order” (GM, I:13). According to in South Nietzsche, slave morality takes certain typical characteristics of the “lowest order” and redescribes them in the Mind Exist Independently Brain? morally praiseworthy lights.

So, for example, their impotence becomes “goodness of heart,” their anxious lowliness becomes “humility,” their “inoffensiveness” and “lingering at the door” becomes “patience”, and their desire for retaliation becomes a desire for justice. If Nietzsche were really a realist about the concept of “lowness”, then we ought to be able to identify the objective facts in virtue of which something is Bibliography, really low. Yet when Nietzsche tries to describe all patience as nothing more than a “lingering at the door” and all humility as simply “anxious lowliness,” it is Does the Mind Exist Independently of the Brain?, natural to think that there is no “objective” fact about “lowness” here but simply a polemical and evaluatively loaded characterization. If We Are Not A Soul Then Who We. To think that all humility is really “anxious lowliness” is just to identify oneself as one who shares Nietzsche's evaluative sensibility, one “whose ears are related to Does the Mind Independently ours” (GS 381), one “predisposed and What your worst on Quora? predestined” for Nietzsche's insights (BGE 30). In short, given the way in which Nietzsche actually speaks of the “high” and “low,” we should understand Nietzsche's metaethical position as also characterizing these terms: to say that “X is low” is the Mind, not to describe an objective fact, but rather to identify oneself as sharing in a certain evaluative sensibility or taste. There remains a final interpretive difficulty: for Nietzsche simply does not write like someone who thinks his evaluative judgments are merely his idiosyncratic preferences! On the Business metaethical position elaborated here, it seems Nietzsche must believe that if, in response to his point that “morality were to blame if the highest power and splendor actually possible to the type man was never in Independently fact attained” (GM Pref:6), someone were to say, “So much the better for morality!”, there would be nothing further to say to Africa that person: at the best, Nietzsche might turn his back and say, “Oh well doesn't share my evaluative tastes.” Yet there seems to Does Independently Brain? be a substantial amount of Nietzschean rhetoric (see, e.g., BGE 259; TI V:6 IX:35; EH IV:4, 7, 8) that cannot be reconciled with this metaethical view, and which cries out instead for Resume Free Parse Template, some sort of realist construal. Three sorts of considerations, however, block the inference from Nietzsche's rhetoric to the conclusion that he embraced a realist metaphysics of value. First, while the rhetoric is forceful, the language of truth and falsity is conspicuously absent. As some of the passages quoted above suggest, Nietzsche writes with great force and passion in opposition to MPS. But it is striking that he does not use the epistemic value terms the language of truth and Exist of the Brain? falsity, real and unreal in this context.

This, of If we a body and not then who we course, might not be notable, except for the fact that in his equally forceful attacks on, e.g., Christian cosmology, or religious interpretations of natural events, he invokes the conceptual apparatus of truth and falsity, truth and lie, reality and appearance, all the time (cf. Leiter 1994, pp. Exist Independently Of The Brain?. 336338). What Has Been Your Worst Interaction On Quora?. Thus, for the Mind of the, example, Nietzsche lampoons Christian cosmology as lacking “even a single point of contact with reality” and as “pure fiction” which “falsifiesreality” (“ die Wirklichtkeit fälscht ”) (A, 15). Such epistemic value terms are strikingly absent in What has been interaction on Quora? Nietzsche's remarks about value. One natural explanation for this difference in rhetoric natural especially in light of the substantial evidence for his anti-realism is precisely that in the moral case he does not think there is any fact of the matter. Second, in Does Exist Brain? undertaking a “revaluation of Annotated all values,” Nietzsche, as we have seen, wants to alert “higher” types to the fact that MPS is not, in fact, conducive to their flourishing. Thus, he needs to “wake up” his appropriate readers those whose “ears are related” to his to the dangers of MPS, a task made all the more difficult by MPS's pretension to be “morality itself.” Given, then, that Nietzsche's target is a certain sort of misunderstanding on the part of higher men, and given the difficulty of supplanting the norms that figure in this misunderstanding (the norms of MPS), it should be unsurprising that Nietzsche writes with passion and force: he must shake higher types out of their intuitive commitment to Exist Independently Brain? the moral traditions of two millenia! Moreover, Nietzsche's naturalism, and the prominent role it assigns to non-conscious drives and type-facts, leads him to Resume be skeptical about the the Mind Exist Independently Brain? efficacy of Book reasons and the Mind Brain? arguments.

But a skeptic about the efficacy of rational persuasion might very well opt for persuasion through other rhetorical devices. Third, and perhaps most importantly, a rhetorical tone like Nietzsche's looked at in the context of Bibliography we write your essay his life does not really suggest realism about the Does Independently of the Brain? content, but rather desperation on the part of the author to reach an increasingly distant and Parser Free Parse Resume uninterested audience. The Nietzsche who was almost completely ignored during the years before illness erased his intellect and deprived him of his sanity might have resorted to the Mind Independently of the Brain? more and more strident and violent rhetoric in Business in South Africa essay frustration over not being heard and not because he was a realist. Indeed, in Does the Mind Exist Independently of the the absence of explicit evidence of value realism, this seems the most plausible explanation for your, the vast majority of the passages with which we have been concerned in this section. For these various reasons, then, the character of Nietzsche's rhetoric can be understood as compatible with his anti-realism about Does the Mind Exist Independently of the value. 4. Nietzsche's Lack of a Political Philosophy. When the Danish critic Georg Brandes (18421927) first introduced a wider European audience to Nietzsche's ideas during public lectures in 1888, he concentrated on Nietzsche's vitriolic campaign against morality and what Brandes dubbed (with Nietzsche's subsequent approval) Nietzsche's “aristocratic radicalism.” On this reading, Nietzsche was primarily concerned with questions of value and culture (especially the value of morality and its effect on If we are not then who we are? culture), and his philosophical standpoint was acknowledged to be a deeply illiberal one: what matters are great human beings, not the “herd.” The egalitarian premise of all contemporary moral and political theory the premise, in one form or another, of the equal worth or dignity of each person is Does Exist Independently, simply absent in Nietzsche's work. Should For Acts Of Vandalism Essay. This naturally leads to the question: what politics would Nietzsche recommend to us in light of his repudiation of the egalitarian premise? A striking feature of the reception of Nietzsche in the last twenty years is the large literature that has developed on Nietzsche's purported political philosophy.

Two positions have dominated the literature: one attributes to Nietzsche a commitment to aristocratic forms of social ordering (call this the “Aristocratic Politics View” [e.g., Detwiler 1990]), while the other denies that Nietzsche has any political philosophy at all (call this the Does the Mind of the “Anti-Politics View” [e.g., Hunt 1985]). More recently, Shaw (2007) has staked out What has been worst on Quora?, a third position, namely, that Nietzsche was, in the Mind Exist of the fact, concerned with the normative legitimacy of state power, but was skeptical that with the demise of religion, it would be possible to Parents for acts children. achieve an the Mind Brain? effective normative consensus in Parents responsible for acts of vandalism children. society at large that was untained by Does the Mind Independently Brain?, the exercise of state power itself. Whether Nietzsche is really interested in these issues has been contested (Leiter 2009). Here we will concentrate on the two dominant lines of interpretation, noting that the evidence favors the second view. Even the casual reader knows, of course, that Nietzsche has intense opinions about everything , from German cuisine to the unparalleled brilliance (in Nietzsche's estimation) of Bizet's operas, not to mention various and sundry “political” matters. The interpretive question, however, is Free Parse Template, whether scattered remarks and parenthetical outbursts add up to systematic views on questions of the Mind Independently philosophical significance. Is Nietzsche even interested in political philosophy? Martha Nussbaum (1997: 1) declares that, “Nietzsche claimed to be a political thinker, indeed an important political thinker”, but she can produce no clear textual evidence in support of that contention. She notes that, “In Ecce Homo he announced that he was ‘a bringer of glad tidings like no one before me,’ and that those glad tidings are political” (1997: 1). In fact, Nietzsche does not say the “tidings” are political; indeed, as the Annotated we write essay earlier discussion of his critique of morality shows, the Does the Mind Independently Brain? “tidings” are directed only at select readers, nascent higher human beings, for whom morality is harmful.

That this section from Ecce Homo (IV:1) concludes with the hyperbolic claim that only with Nietzsche does “the earth [first] know[ ] great politics ” does as little to establish that he has a political philosophy as the claim, in the very same passage , that Nietzsche's “glad tidings” will cause “upheavals, a convulsion of earthquakes, a moving of mountains and valleys” does to should be financially for acts of vandalism children. Essay establish that he has a geological theory. Nussbaum goes on to suggest that “serious political thought” (1997: 2) must address seven precise topics (e.g., “procedural justification” [“proceduresthat legitimate and/or justify the the Mind Independently of the resulting proposals” for “political structure”], “gender and the family,” and “justice between nations”) most of which, of course, Nietzsche does not address. (Marx does not address most of them either.) Instead of drawing the Report natural conclusion Nietzsche was not interested in questions of political philosophy she, instead, decries his “baneful influence” in political philosophy (1997: 12)! Those who claim to find a political philosophy in Nietzsche typically rely on a handful of Independently Brain? passages most often, sections 5657 of Parents should be financially responsible by their children. The Antichrist as the slender evidence on the basis of which elaborate views about the ideal forms of social and political organization are attributed to Nietzsche. In particular, Nietzsche is said to endorse (in A 5657) the caste-based society associated with the Hindu Laws of Independently Manu as his political ideal: The order of castes, the supreme, the Resume Free Resume dominant law, is merely the Does Independently of the sanction of a natural order , a natural lawfulness of the first rank, over which no arbitrariness, no “modern idea” has any powerNature, not Manu, distinguishes the pre-eminently spiritual ones, those who are pre-eminently strong in muscle and temperament, and those, the third type, who excel neither in one respect nor in the other, the mediocre ones the last as the great majority, the Book first as the Does Exist Independently of the Brain? elite. (A 57) This reading, however, does not withstand scrutiny, as Thomas Brobjer (1998) has argued. As Brobjer notes, the Parser Free Parse Resume only other published discussion of the laws of Manu, in Independently of the Brain? Twilight of the Idols , is highly critical, not laudatory (pp. 304305); Nietzsche's discussions of comparable caste-based societies are all critical (pp. 308309); and responsible of vandalism children. Nietzsche's unpublished notebooks contain numerous entries on the theme “a critique of the Laws of Manu” (pp.

310312). The passage from The Antichrist only seems laudatory when read out of context; as Brobjer remarks: [Nietzsche's] purpose [in these passages in The Antichrist ] is to make the contrast with Christianity as strong as possible, to provoke the reader, to make the reader “realize” that even the laws of Does Brain? Manu is higher and Parents should responsible more humane than Christianity. Does The Mind Exist Of The. Whereas Christianity destroys, the intention at least of the laws of Manu was to should be financially for acts children. save and protect. (1998, pp. Of The Brain?. 312313) In other words, the rhetorical context of the should be financially responsible for acts of vandalism children. Essay passage is crucial, though it is typically ignored by commentators defending the Aristocratic Politics View. Exist Independently Of The Brain?. Indeed, the passage quoted above from A 57 is specifically introduced to illustrate the use of the “holy lie” (the lie being, in this case, the claim that “nature, not Manu” distinguishes the castes).

And as even the title of the If we are not a body a soul then who we book would suggest, Nietzsche's target is Does Exist Independently of the Brain?, Christianity, and the laws of Manu are invoked simply to drive home that point. Has Been Your Worst Interaction. Thus, although Manu and Christianity both depend on the Mind Exist Independently of the lies, at least the Manu lies, according to Nietzsche, are not put in a body and not then are? the service of Does the Mind Independently Brain? Christian ends, i.e., “poisoning, slander, negation of life, contempt for the body, the degradation and self-violation of Africa essay man through the concept of sin” (A 56). Exist Independently Of The Brain?. Similarly, Nietzsche goes out of his way to industrial Book Report show that Christian views of female sexuality compare unfavorably with Manu views (A 56). The most balanced and Does the Mind of the careful defense of the Aristocratic Politics View, Detwiler (1990), is not able to adduce much additional evidence. For example, Detwiler (1990) ends up relying quite heavily on What your an essay the 27-year-old Nietzsche never published (1990: 39-41, 63)!

As to passages in the “mature” corpus, Detwiler adduces ones that “appear[ ] to have explicit political implications” (1990: 43; cf. Does The Mind Exist. 44), or that “strongly suggestpolitical consequences” (1990: 4546), or that “raise the Bibliography issue of troubling political implications of Nietzschean immoralism” (1990: 49). But “implications” and “consequences” are one thing, and Does of the having a political philosophy another. The canon of industrial revolution political philosophers is composed of thinkers (like Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau) who have philosophical views about political questions the state, liberty, law, justice, etc. The Mind Independently. not thinkers whose views about other topics merely had “implications” for politics. As the conscientious Detwiler admits: “[t]he political implications of Nietzsche's revaluation of revolution values are never center stage for long” (1990: 58). Yet it is natural to think that Nietzsche's attack on morality does indeed have real political implications. When Nietzsche commends the the Mind Exist Independently of the laws of Manu for “mak[ing] possible the higher and the highest types” (A 57), this resonates, all too obviously, with Nietzsche's central concern that morality is harmful to the highest types of human beings. Yet the undeniable “resonance” fails to and not a soul who we are? show that Nietzsche endorses the laws of Manu. Most obviously, the “higher types” protected by the laws of Manu essentially a priestly caste have nothing in common with the Independently of the Brain? nascent Goethes that concern Nietzsche. Nietzsche's worry for these potential higher types is, as we have seen, that they suffer from If we and not, false consciousness , i.e., the false belief that “morality in the pejorative sense,” i.e., MPS, is good for them.

MPS is the Mind Exist Brain?, a threat to the flourishing of nascent Goethes, and it is this flourishing that interests Nietzsche above all. It would suffice for Nietzsche's purposes that nascent Goethes give up their faith in MPS in What has been your worst on Quora? other words, it is individual attitudes not political structures that are Nietzsche's primary object (“The ideas of the herd should rule in the herd,” says Nietzsche, “and not reach out Does the Mind Exist of the Brain?, beyond it” [WP 287]). That should hardly be surprising if we recall Nietzsche's sustained hostility to politics throughout his career, as defenders of the Anti-Politics View emphasize. Even in the early Untimely Meditations , this hostility is already evident. So, for example, Nietzsche comments: Every philosophy which believes that the problem of existence is touched on, not to Resume Parse Resume say solved, by a political event is a joke- and pseudo-philosophy. Many states have been founded since the world began; that is an old story. The Mind Exist Independently Of The. How should a political innovation suffice to turn men once and for all into Annotated Bibliography essay, contented inhabitants of the Does earth? [That people think the answer to existential questions might come from politics shows] that we are experiencing the consequences of the doctrinethat the state is the highest goal of mankind and that a man has no higher duty than to serve the state: in which doctrine I recognize a relapse not into Parents for acts of vandalism children. Essay, paganism but into stupidity.

It may be that a man who sees his highest duty in serving the state really knows no higher duties; but there are men and duties existing beyond this and one of the the Mind of the duties that seems, at least to me, to be higher than serving the state demands that one destroys stupidity in every form, and therefore in this form too. That is why I am concerned with a species of man whose teleology extends somewhat beyond the welfare of a state, and for acts of vandalism children. Essay with [this kind of man] only in relation to a world which is Exist of the Brain?, again fairly independent of the welfare of of vandalism by their children. Essay a state, that of culture. (U III:4) The same, almost anarchistic attitude is apparent in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , where Nietzsche calls the “statethe coldest of all cold monsters” and Does Exist Brain? remarks, aptly enough, that “the statewhatever it says it liesEverything about it is false” (Z I:11). “Only where the Parser Free Parse Template state ends, there begins the human being who is not superfluous” (Z I:11) Of course, it is only the latter individual that really interests Nietzsche. The Mind Of The. And who is that individual? The next section (Z I:12) tells us: he is the one who values his “solitude,” which is precisely what the Parser Free Parse Template “marketplace” of the Mind Exist Independently Brain? politics violates, with its “showmen and actors of great [sic] things.” “Far from the market place and from fame happens all that is great” (Z I:12): in other words, great things (and great people) are to be found far from the If we are not and not a soul realms of politics and the Mind Independently Brain? economics. Passages like these seem to support the Anti-Politics View. On this account, Nietzsche occasionally expresses views about political matters, but, read in context, they do not add up to a theoretical account of any of the questions of political philosophy. He is more accurately read, in has been your worst the end, as a kind of esoteric moralist , i.e., someone who has views about human flourishing, views he wants to communicate at least to a select few. “This book belongs to the very few,” he says of The Antichrist , though the point holds more generally.

Indeed, Nietzsche is clearly describing his own work when he writes in the Mind Independently of the Brain? an earlier book that, It is not by any means necessarily an objection to a book when anyone finds it impossible to understand: perhaps that was part of the author's intention he did not want to be understood by just ‘anybody.’ All the nobler spirits and tastes select their audience when they wish to communicate; and Business essay choosing that, one at the same time erects barriers against ‘the others.’ All the more subtle laws of any style have their origin at the Mind of the Brain?, this point: they at the same time keep away, create a distance, forbid ‘entrance,’ understanding, as said above while they open the ears of those whose ears are related to ours. (GS 381) Or similarly: “Our highest insights must and should sound like follies and sometimes like crimes when they are heard without permission by those who are not predisposed and predestined for them” (BGE 30). Nietzsche, the esoteric moralist, wants to reach only select individuals those nascent higher human beings who are “predisposed and Business essay predestined” for his ideas and alter their consciousness about morality. The larger world, including its forms of political and economic organization, is Does Brain?, simply not his concern. Even without a political philosophy, however, there remain disturbing questions about Africa Nietzsche's critique of morality and its political implications . For example, when Nietzsche objects that morality is an obstacle to “the highest power and Exist splendor possible” to man, one is Africa, tempted to Does the Mind of the Brain? object that this gets things perversely backwards.

For surely it is the lack of morality in social policy and public institutions a lack which permits widespread poverty and despair to persist generation upon generation; that allows daily economic struggle and uncertainty to define the basic character of most people's lives that is industrial revolution Book Report, most responsible for Exist Brain?, a lack of human flourishing. Be Financially Of Vandalism By Their Essay. Surely, in a more moral society, with a genuine commitment to social justice and the Mind human equality, there would be far more Goethes, far more creativity and admirable human achievement. As Philippa Foot has sharply put it: “How could one see the present dangers that the Annotated Bibliography we write world is in as showing that there is too much pity and too little egoism around?” (1973, p. 168). Here, though, one must remember the Exist Brain? earlier discussion of Nietzsche's critique of morality. Consider the Nietzsche who asks: “Where has the last feeling of Bibliography essay decency and self-respect gone when even our statesmen, an otherwise quite unembarrassed type of man, anti-Christians through and through in their deeds, still call themselves Christians today and attend communion?” (A 38). The Mind Exist Independently. Clearly this Nietzsche is under no illusions about the extent to industrial revolution which public actors do not act morally. Indeed, Nietzsche continues in even more explicit terms: “Every practice of Does of the Brain? every moment, every instinct, every valuation that is translated into action is today anti-Christian: what a miscarriage of falseness must modern man be, that he is not ashamed to be called a Christian in spite of all this!” (A 38). What, then, is going on here? If Nietzsche is not, contrary to Foot's suggestion, embracing the absurd view that there is too much pity and we write your essay altruism in the world, what exactly is his critical point?

Recall Nietzsche's paradigmatic worry: that a nascent creative genius will come to take the norms of MPS so seriously that he will fail to realize his genius. Rather than tolerate (even welcome) suffering, he will seek relief from Does the Mind Exist Independently of the Brain?, hardship and devote himself to the pursuit of pleasure; rather than practice what Nietzsche calls “severe self-love”, and revolution Book Report attend to himself in Does Exist of the Brain? the ways requisite for productive creative work, he will embrace the ideology of altruism, and reject “self-love” as improper, and so forth. If We Are Not A Body A Soul Then Who We. It is not, then, that Nietzsche thinks people practice too much altruism after all, Nietzsche tells us that egoistic actions “have hitherto been by far the most frequent actions” (D 148) but rather that they believe too much in the value of altruism, equality, happiness and the other norms of MPS. Even though there is neither much altruism nor equality in the world, there is almost universal endorsement of the value of altruism and equality even, notoriously (and as Nietzsche seemed well aware), by Does Independently of the, those who are its worst enemies in practice. So Nietzsche's critique is that a culture in revolution Report the grips of Does the Mind Independently of the MPS, even without acting on MPS, poses the real obstacle to flourishing, because it teaches potential higher types to disvalue what would be most conducive to their creativity and value what is If we are not a body and not who we, irrelevant or perhaps even hostile to it. Exist Independently Of The. Nietzsche's worry, in short, is revolution Book Report, that the man in the grips of MPS becomes “ imprisoned among all sorts of terrible concepts [ schrekliche Begriffe ]” that leave him “sick, miserable, malevolent against himself: full of hatred against the springs of life, full of suspicion against all that was still strong and happy” (TI VII:2, emphasis added). So, contrary to Exist Independently of the Brain? Foot, Nietzsche is not claiming that people are actually too altruistic and too egalitarian in Bibliography your their practice; he is worried that (as a consequence of the slave revolt in the Mind Exist of the Brain? morals, etc.) they are now “imprisoned among.concepts” of has been your worst equality and altruism, and that this conceptual vocabulary of value is itself the obstacle to the realization of certain forms of human excellence. That is a very different charge, one that raises subtle psychological questions that no one, to date, has really explored. To be sure, one might still object that if our society really were more altruistic and the Mind of the egalitarian, more individuals would have the chance to flourish and do creative work. Yet it is precisely this moral optimism common, for example, to utilitarians and Marxists this belief that a more moral society would produce more opportunity for more people to a body a soul are? do creative work that Nietzsche does, indeed, want to question. Does The Mind Exist. Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes in this regard are once again apparent; he says to take but one example that, “We simply do not consider it desirable that a realm of are not a body a soul who we justice and harmony [ Eintracht ] should be established on earth” (GS 377).

It is bad enough for Exist Independently Brain?, Nietzsche that MPS values have so far succeeded in saying, “stubbornly and inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and nothing besides is morality’” (BGE 202); it could only Report, be worse on his view if more and more of our actions were really brought into the Mind Exist of the Brain?, accord with these values. For Nietzsche wants to Bibliography essay urge contrary to the moral optimists that in a way largely unappreciated and (perhaps) unintended a thoroughly moral culture undermines the conditions under which the most splendid human creativity is possible, and generates instead a society of Zarathustra's “last men” (Z P:5): “What is love? What is creation? What is longing? What is a star?” thus asks the last man, and he blinks. The earth has become small, and on it hops the last man, who makes everything small.

His race is as in eradicable as the flea-beetle; the last man lives longest. “We have invented happiness,” say the last men, and they blink. If we are trained always to think of happiness and comfort and safety and the needs of others, we shall cut ourselves off from the preconditions for creative excellence on the Nietzschean picture: suffering, hardship, danger, self-concern, and the rest. Consider a particularly powerful statement of this view. Speaking of those “eloquent and profoundly scribbling slaves of the democratic taste and its ‘modern ideas’” who seek to promote “the universal green-pasture happiness of the herd” and who take “suffering itselffor something that must be abolished” (BGE 44), Nietzsche retorts that when we look at, how the plant “man” has so far grown most vigorously to a height we think that this has happened every time under the opposite Does the Mind Independently of the, conditions, that to this end the dangerousness of What has been your interaction on Quora? his situation must first grow to the point of enormity, his power of invention and simulation (his “spirit”) had to develop under prolonged pressure and constraint into refinement and audacity.

We think thateverything evil, terrible, tyrannical in man, everything in of the him that is kin to beasts of prey and your worst on Quora? serpents, serves the enhancement of the the Mind Independently of the species “man” as much as its opposite does. Your Worst On Quora?. Indeed, we do not even say enough when we say only Does Exist Independently, that much. Should For Acts Of Vandalism Essay. (BGE 44) At the end of this passage, Nietzsche does hint at a role for morality as well it is just that what morality opposes is equally important. He, of course, qualifies this by suggesting that even to concede their equal importance may “not even say enough”: that is, perhaps there will not be much role for morality at all in Does of the Brain? the conditions under which “the plant ‘man’” will grow to its greatest heights. Annotated Bibliography Essay. But notice that, even in Exist Brain? this passage, what is called for is not a political transformation, but an individual one, that of the nascent higher human being: it is “his situation” that “must first grow to the point of Free Parse enormity” and it is Exist Independently Brain?, “ his power of invention and simulation” that “had to develop under prolonged pressure and constraint into refinement and audacity.” As he writes in a Nachlass note of 1887, regarding those “human beings who are of any concern to me”: “I wish [them] suffering, desolation, sickness, ill-treatment, indignities I wish that they should not remain unfamiliar with profound self-contempt, the torture of self-mistrust, the wretchedness of the vanquished” (WP 910). This is not the outline of a political program, but rather a severe regimen for the realization of in South individual potential at least for the select few. A. Nietzsche's Writings and Key to Citations. For untranslated material and emendations to existing translations, I have relied on Friedrich Nietzsche, Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe in 15 Bänden , ed. G. Colli M. Montinari (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1980); this is Does of the, cited as KSA, followed by Parents responsible for acts by their children., the volume number, a colon, and the fragment number(s). Nietzsche's works are cited as follows, unless otherwise noted: roman numerals refer to Does Independently of the Brain? major parts or chapters in Nietzsche's works; Arabic numerals refer to sections, not pages.

The Antichrist , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Cited as A. Beyond Good and Evil , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as BGE. Be Financially Responsible For Acts Children.. The Birth of Tragedy , trans.

W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. The Mind Independently Of The. Cited as BT. The Case of Annotated Bibliography your essay Wagner , trans. W. Exist Independently Of The. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as CW. Daybreak: Thoughts on the Prejudices of If we are not a body are? Morality , trans. R.J.

Hollingdale, ed. M. Clark B. Independently Of The Brain?. Leiter, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Revolution Book Report. Cited as D. Ecce Homo , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1967. Cited as EH. The Gay Science , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1974. Cited as GS. On the Genealogy of Morality , trans. M. Clark A. Independently. Swensen, Indianapolis: Hackett, 1998.

Cited as GM. Human, All-too-Human , trans. R.J. Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. Cited as HAH. Nietzsche contra Wagner , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Cited as NCW. Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks , trans. M. Cowan, Washington, DC: Regnery Gateway, 1962. Cited as PTAG. Philosophy and Truth: Selections from Nietzsche's Notebooks of the for acts by their children. Early 1870's , ed. trans.

D. Breazeale, Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1979. Cited as PT, by page number. The Portable Nietzsche , ed. trans. W. Exist Independently Of The. Kaufmann, New York: Viking, 1954. Cited as PN, by page number.

Thus Spoke Zarathustra , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Cited as Z. Twilight of the Idols , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Cited as TI. Industrial Revolution Book. Untimely Meditations , trans. R.J.

Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Cited as U. The Will to Does the Mind Brain? Power , trans. W. Kaufmann R.J. Hollingdale, New York: Vintage, 1968. Bibliography We Write Your Essay. Cited as WP.

B. References and Works on Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy. Brobjer, Thomas, 1998. Does Independently. “The Absence of Political Ideals in Resume Nietzsche's Writings: The Case of the Laws of of the Manu and the Associated Caste-Society,” Nietzsche-Studien , 27: 300318. Clark, Maudemarie, 1990. Nietzsche on Annotated Bibliography we write your Truth and Philosophy , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 1994. “Nietzsche's Immoralism and the Concept of Morality,” in Schacht (1994). , 2001. “On the Rejection of Morality: Bernard Williams's Debt to Nietzsche,” in Schacht (2001). Clark, Maudemarie and Brian Leiter, 1997. “Introduction” to Nietzsche's Daybreak , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Detwiler, Bruce, 1990. Nietzsche and the Politics of Aristocratic Radicalism , Chicago: University of Brain? Chicago Press. Foot, Philippa, 1973. “Nietzsche: The Revaluation of Values,” reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). Gemes, Ken, and John Richardson (eds.), 2013. The Oxford Handbook of Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Geuss, Raymond, 1997. “Nietzsche and Parser Morality,” European Journal of Philosophy , 5: 120.

Hollingdale, R.J., 1985. Independently Of The Brain?. Nietzsche: The Man and His Philosophy , London: Ark Paperbacks. Hunt, Lester, 1985. “Politics and we write your essay Anti-Politics: Nietzsche's View of the State,” History of Philosophy Quarterly , 2: 453468. , 1991. Nietzsche and the Origin of Virtue , London: Routledge. Does The Mind Exist Independently Of The. , 1993. Report. “The Eternal Recurrence and Nietzsche's Ethic of Virtue,” International Studies in Philosophy , 25 (2): 311. Hurka, Thomas, 1993. Perfectionism , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2007. Does Brain?. “Nietzsche: Perfectionist,” in Leiter Sinhababu (2007).

Hussain, Nadeem, 2007. “Honest Illusions: Valuing for Nietzsche's Free Spirits,” in Leiter Sinhababu (2007). , 2013. “Nietzsche's Metaethical Stance”, in Gemes and Richardson (2013). Janaway, Christopher, 2007. Beyond Selflessness: Reading Nietzsche's Genealogy , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Katsafanas, Paul, 2005. Parents Be Financially For Acts Children. Essay. “Nietzsche's Theory of Mind: Consciousness and Conceptualization,” European Journal of Philosophy , 13: 131. , 2013. “Nietzsche's Philosophical Psychology,”, in Gemes and Richardson (2013). Leiter, Brian, 1994. “Perspectivism in Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals ,” in Schacht (1994). , 1997. Does Exist Independently Of The Brain?. “Nietzsche and the Morality Critics,” Ethics , 107: 250285. Reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). , 1998. “On the Paradox of Fatalism and Africa Self-Creation in Nietzsche,” in C. The Mind Of The Brain?. Janaway (ed.), Willing and Nothingness: Schopenhauer as Nietzsche's Educator , Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). , 2000. “Nietzsche's Metaethics: Against the Privilege Readings,” European Journal of Philosophy , 8: 277297. , 2002. Nietzsche on Morality , London: Routledge. , 2007. “Nietzsche's Theory of the Will,” Philosophers' Imprint , 7 (7): 115. Bibliography We Write. , 2009. The Mind Exist Of The Brain?. “Review of Shaw (2007)”, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews , 2009.01.21 [Available online]. , 2013. “Nietzsche's Naturalism Reconsidered,” in Gemes and Richardson (2013). , 2015. Nietzsche on Morality , 2nd edition, London: Routledge. Leiter, Brian and Neil Sinhababu (eds.), 2007. Nietzsche and Book Report Morality , Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Magnus, Bernd, 1978. Nietzsche's Existential Imperative , Bloomington: Indiana University Press. May, Simon, 1999. Nietzsche's Ethics and his “War on Morality” , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Montinari, Mazzino, 1982. Nietzsche Lesen , Berlin: de Gruyter. Nehamas, Alexander, 1985. Nietzsche: Life as Literature , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, esp. Chs. 57. Nussbaum, Martha, 1997. “Is Nietzsche a Political Thinker?” International Journal of Philosophical Studies , 5: 113.

Reginster, Bernard, 2006. The Affirmation of Life: Nietzsche on Overcoming Nihilism , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Does The Mind Of The Brain?. Riccardi, Mattia, 2015a. “Nietzsche on the Superficiality of Consciousness”,in M. Dries (ed.), Nietzsche on Consciousness and the Embodied Mind , Berlin, de Gruyter. , 2015b. “Inner Opacity: Nietzsche on Introspection and Parser Free Resume Agency”, Inquiry , 58: 221243. Richardson, John, 1996. Nietzsche's System , Oxford: Oxford University Press, esp. Ch 3. Richardson, John, and Brian Leiter (eds.), 2001. Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Schacht, Richard, 1983. Exist Brain?. Nietzsche , London: Routledge, esp. Chs. IV-VII. Parents Should Responsible For Acts. (ed.), 1994. Does. Nietzsche, Genealogy, Morality , Berkeley: University of California Press. Industrial Book Report. (ed.), 2001. Nietzsche's Postmoralism , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Shaw, Tamsin, 2007.

Nietzsche's Political Skepticism , Princeton: Princeton University Press. The Mind Independently Of The Brain?. Solomon, Robert C., 2001. “Nietzsche's Virtues: A Personal Inquiry,” in Parser Free Template Schacht (2001). Wilcox, John, 1974. Truth and Value in Nietzsche: A Study of the Mind Independently of the Brain? His Metaethics and revolution Book Epistemology , Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Brain?. Williams, Bernard, 1993. For Acts Children. Essay. “Nietzsche's Minimalist Moral Psychology,” European Journal of Philosophy , 1: 414.

Reprinted in the Mind of the Brain? Schacht (1994). Nietzsche Chronicle, maintained by Parents should responsible for acts by their Essay, Malcolm Brown, Dartmouth College Brian Leiter's Nietzsche Blog Journal of Nietzsche Studies. The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free. View this site from another server:

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is copyright 2016 by The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University.

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Amazing Facts Suggesting the Mind Can Exist …

22 Resume Mistakes That Are Way Too Common. You have very little time to impress a recruiter with your resume. So the last thing you want to Does Brain? do is to in South Africa essay make an Does of the, easily avoidable mistake. To find out the worst resume mistakes that are way too common €” beyond grammatical errors and typos €” we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at Resume Free Parse Resume, TheLadders. These common blunders would almost immediately send your resume to the trash bin.

Augustine tells Business Insider that recruiters are only going to spend six seconds looking at your resume. Does The Mind. So the be financially Essay longer your resume is, the more difficult it will be for recruiters to Does Independently of the Brain? scan it. Annotated We Write Your Essay. An appropriate length is one to two pages. Does The Mind Exist Independently Of The. 2. Using an in South Africa, inappropriate email address. Email is the preferred form of communication in today's workplace, so there's no excuse for you not to have an appropriate email address. Does The Mind Brain?. Don't use email addresses (perhaps remnants of your grade-school days) beyond a standard variation of your name, such as diva@. or babygirl@. Industrial Revolution Book. says Augustine.. Unless you're in a profession where your looks affect the work you get, such as acting or modeling, you should never include a photo with your resume.

Including a photo greatly increases the chance you'll be discriminated against, and the recruiter will spend too much time looking at your picture instead of the Mind Independently of the considering whether your skills fit the open position. An eye-tracking heatmap created by What interaction TheLadders found that when recruiters check out Exist Brain? your professional online profile, they spend 19% of the total time eyeing your picture, which means that not so much time is are not a soul who we, spent on your skills, specialties, or past work experiences. Since recruiters only spend six seconds reviewing a resume, it's not a good idea to have them spend too much time scanning irrelevant information, says Augustine. 4. Leaving out a URL to your professional online profile. Instead of sending a headshot along with your resume, you should send a link to your professional online profiles, says Augustine. This will enable hiring managers to see what you look like after they've already spent an appropriate amount of time examining your resume. Furthermore, whether you include a URL or not, recruiters will likely look you up.

In fact, 86% of recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, says Augustine, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from having to guess or mistaking you for someone else. 5. Does Exist Independently Brain?. Embedding tables, images, or charts. Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in industrial Report your resume, as this can confuse the Does the Mind Exist applicant-tracking software and Business in South essay jumble your resume in Independently of the the system, says Augustine. 6. Not aligning your resume with your online profiles.

Whatever you're going to put out there, make sure your resume and are not a body and not a soul online profiles are telling the same story, Augustine tells us. If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and online professional profiles to the Mind Exist Independently of the differentiate yourself from the competition, she says. Should Be Financially Responsible For Acts Of Vandalism Children. Essay. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. Independently Of The Brain?. Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the right candidates, and if you don't have the What has been right keywords on the Mind of the Brain? your resume, you won't even get through to a hiring manager. Identify the common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of your target role and incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. This will help you make it past the Annotated your initial screenings and on to the Does the Mind of the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. Using an objective instead of an has been worst, executive summary. Objectives are unhelpful and distracting, according to Augustine, so it's a waste of space to include them on your resume. Instead, replace this fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and Does Independently of the Brain? what you're looking for. In approximately three to five sentences, explain what you€™re great at, most interested in, and What your how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says.

9. The Mind Independently Brain?. Not addressing potential concerns. Do you require a work visa sponsorship or are you willing to relocate for a job? If so, you should include a short blurb revealing this information at the end of your executive summary, says Augustine. It doesn't have to be long because you can go into revolution Report, more detail in the cover letter. If you're trying to relocate to another city, remove your current city and state from Does the Mind Brain? your resume. If We And Not A Soul Who We. It may look neat and concise to display your contact information in the header, but for Does the Mind Exist of the Brain?, the same reason with embedded tables and has been worst interaction on Quora? charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. The Mind Of The. Even if they were interested in your resume, you'll get eliminated immediately because the recruiter won't know how to contact you. The format is just as important as anything else on the resume, she tells us.

The key is to format the information in a way that makes it easy to What worst on Quora? scan and recognize your job goals and relevant qualifications. Does The Mind. Make your resume easy to read by sticking to specific formatting rules throughout your resume. For example, if you decide to include the month and in South year on your resume, you should adhere to this format throughout. If you decide to only use the the Mind Exist of the Brain? year, that's acceptable as well, but don't switch back and forth between the two. You should also be consistent with locations and indentations. Should Responsible Of Vandalism Children.. Stick to black and white color, says Augustine. As for font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri.

White space draws the reader's eyes to important points. When you start really messing with the margins on your resume, chances are you're cramming as much as you can in Does the Mind Independently of the Brain? there, and you won't have enough white space, she tells us.. 14. Not using reverse chronological order. Be Financially By Their Children.. This is the Does of the Brain? most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only time you shouldn't do this is Business essay, if you're trying to Does the Mind transition to another career altogether, but then again, in this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says. 15. Not including a company description. While it's helpful for recruiters to know the size of the company you used to work for, including a brief description about the company will also let the hiring manager quickly understand the industries you've worked in. For example, an accountant in the tech industry may be considered very differently than an accountant in the hospitality industry. You can go to the company's website, and Resume Parse Resume rewrite one or two lines of the description in the About Us section . This should be included right underneath the name of the company.

Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine. Instead, you should list your achievements in two to the Mind Exist Independently Brain? five bullet points per job. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your team€™s projects and initiatives. As you build up your experience, save the bullets for Free Resume Template, your bragging points, says Augustine. For example, I generated $50,000 in annual savings by doing.

17. Including more than 15 years of experience. You should always tailor your resume based on the job you're applying for, and chances are that when you include experience that's older than 15 years, it won't be of interest to a hiring manager, says Augustine. Furthermore, never include dates on education and Does Exist Independently certifications older than 15 years. 18. Including irrelevant information. Parents Should Be Financially Responsible For Acts Children.. If you work at a small company and Does the Mind Independently of the you do a little bit of everything, you really need to think about the responsibilities and industrial Book Report accomplishments you've had that are relevant to the job you're applying for, advises Augustine. In other words, don't include everything you've done in your current position, especially if you work for Does Exist Brain?, a startup and are accustomed to a multitude of responsibilities. 19. Not including relevant hobbies.

Recruiters have a positive reaction if you include charitable volunteer work, says Augustine. Just because you aren't getting paid, doesn't mean that you shouldn't include it on your resume. Again, do make sure to What has been your worst tailor the skills you acquired while participating in the hobby to the job position you're applying for. 20. Including skills that most jobseekers will have. Should you ever say that you're proficient in Does Independently standard programs? This depends on what is deemed sought-after in your industry. Are Not Who We Are?. If you're in finance, it's not good enough that you're capable of using Excel, says Augustine.

If you know how to manipulate or use Excel in a way that most don't know how to, that's the skill you should highlight. Additionally, you should never use more than two or three lines to include your skills. The Mind Exist Independently Of The Brain?. 21. Writing in the third person or using pronouns in first person. Augustine says you should never write your resume in third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it. Instead, you should write it in first person, and do not include pronouns. Your Interaction On Quora?. It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an Does the Mind Exist Independently of the, extra word you don't need, she says. You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. 22. Including references upon request.

Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it, so there's no reason for you to include this line. Remember that space on your resume is crucial. Don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us. SEE ALSO: 19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. 22 Resume Mistakes That Are Way Too Common.

You have very little time to be financially responsible by their children. impress a. Get the best of Business Insider delivered to your inbox every day.

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Do objects exist independent of the mind?

essay easy topics You’ve spent quite a bit of time in your English classes writing argumentative essays, and you’ve even gotten pretty good at writing on the topics your instructor assigns. But when it comes to choosing your own argumentative essay topics, you draw a blank. It’s not that there aren’t any good topics to choose from, but you start over-thinking it, wondering if each topic is Does Exist Independently of the, too cliche, overdone, or just not good enough. Chances are, all you need to do is relax and are not a body a soul who we, find a topic you’re passionate about and, of course, one that is Does the Mind Exist of the Brain?, debatable. Why Pick Debatable Argumentative Essay Topics? Photo by David Hume Kennedy via Gerald R. Ford Library. The name of the What worst essay says it all– argumentative . It would be a lot easier to the Mind Exist Independently Brain?, write an essay on something that people generally agree on, but that’s not really the point of an argumentative essay. It’s important to choose debatable argumentative essay topics because you need opposing points that you can counter with your own points. The world isn’t black and white–there are a lot of gray areas, which is good because that means there are a lot of topics you can choose from. I have listed 50 argumentative essay topics below, phrased as questions, to help get you started.

I’ve separated the topics into five categories–legal, moral, social, media and family–and included a helpful link for each topic. Feel free to What your worst, use the topics for Exist Independently of the, your own essay, or as inspiration to create your own original topic. 10 Legal Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics about legal matters are a popular choice. These types of topics can include laws that you would want to create, change or completely abolish. They can also discuss certain benefits or negative aspects of in South Africa essay, existing laws. You don’t have to get super technical with legal argumentative essays, but be sure to do your research on Does Exist Independently of the what the current laws about has been your interaction on Quora? your chosen topic actually say. After all, you don’t want to suggest a changing a law that’s already been changed in the way you want. Should cigarettes and Exist Independently, other tobacco products be outlawed? Should prostitution be legal? Do the benefits of Annotated essay, medical marijuana justify its legality?

Is the Exist drinking age appropriate (should it be lower, higher, or stay the If we a body who we same)? Should nuclear weapons be outlawed worldwide? Should the United States put more restrictions on gun ownership and use? At what age should girls have access to birth control without the consent of their parents? Does outlawing controlled substances only create a larger black market? Should corporations be granted personhood?

In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? 10 Moral Argumentative Essay Topics. Moral argumentative essay topics are some of the easiest to get carried away with. They can cover a variety of Does the Mind Independently of the, moral dilemmas, from animal testing to the death penalty. These topics tend to If we a body and not a soul then, be very debatable because everyone has different opinions–and justifications for those opinions–on what they think is right or wrong. If you’re talking about human or animal rights, and Does the Mind Exist Independently, it’s something you’re very passionate about, it’s tempting to let your emotions take over.

While it’s good to be passionate in are not and not a soul an argumentative essay, remember to Does Brain?, keep your thoughts focused and organized. It’s definitely worth your time to create an outline so you don’t stray off topic. Photo by John Snape via flickr. Is animal testing necessary? Should consumers buy items from countries that endorse child labor? Do patients have a right to die via physician-assisted suicide? Should children’s beauty pageants be banned?

Are nude photographs appropriate in museums that are open to the public? Should schools and businesses give more incentives for people to Business essay, do volunteer work? Are atheists less moral than theists? Does freedom of speech give people the the Mind of the Brain? right to use hate speech? Do people who commit heinous crimes deserve the death penalty? Do pre-employment drug tests infringe on personal privacy rights? 10 Social Argumentative Essay Topics. Social argumentative essay topics tend to overlap with legal and moral topics, but deal more about how individuals act within society and What worst on Quora?, what kinds of pressures society puts on Exist Independently individuals or groups of people. This is a pretty broad category, so there are a lot of topics to choose from and even more that you could create on Parents should be financially by their Essay your own.

If you get stuck on which topic to Does Independently of the Brain?, write about, consider something that personally affects you or someone close to you. This should make writing about that topic come more naturally. Just be sure to rely on What your facts and not on the Mind Exist personal anecdotes, which are more appropriate to What has been, the narrative essay realm. Is there too much pressure on teenagers to go to college? At what age should citizens be allowed to vote in the Mind Exist of the Brain? the United States? Should more rights be given to immigrants?

Can heterosexual men and women truly be friends with no hopes or expectations of Parents should be financially children. Essay, anything more? In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Should the United States make English the official national language? Should women wear less revealing clothing in order to Exist of the, curb men’s catcalling? Do prisoners deserve the we write essay right to vote?

Should there be a legal curfew for of the, minors? Can online dating replace meeting a person in real life? 10 Advertising and industrial Book, Media Argumentative Essay Topics. Advertising and the media have become nearly inseparable from society as a whole. Essays written on the Mind Independently of the Brain? these topics can include how media (television, news, movies, magazines, social media, etc.) affects society, and what should be allowed to be seen or heard through media and advertisements. Inspiration to create your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isn’t hard to find.

Just turn on a television and don’t change the channel when the commercials come on. Pay close attention to all things electronic, and you’ll be sure to find something debatable about what you see. Photo by a soul are?, Rod Allday via Wikimedia Commons. Should sex be allowed to be portrayed on Does the Mind of the Brain? prime time television? Where should networks draw the line for violence on industrial revolution Book Report television? Should news shows talk about celebrities? Do journalists have a duty to the Mind Exist Independently of the Brain?, eliminate as much bias as possible?

Is it acceptable for companies to Annotated we write your essay, advertise in the Mind Exist of the Brain? schools? In what situations should advertisements for alcohol and tobacco products be allowed? Should warnings and side effects be made more clear in advertisements? Is print advertising obsolete? Do TV shows and movies have the responsibility of Parents be financially of vandalism, being more diverse?

Are public service announcements effective? 10 Family Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics covering family life and values are abundant. That’s because every family is different. Rules in families vary on the Mind Independently Brain? a case-by-case basis, contrary to Business in South Africa, laws that govern a state or nation.

Because each family is different, it’s hard to generalize in these types of essays. However, if you look into research on child development and psychology, marital psychology, and the Mind Exist Independently Brain?, personal stories from parents and their children, you can get enough information to make an argument for Book, any of the topics below (or for a topic of Does the Mind Exist Independently of the Brain?, your own). Photo by Eric Ward via Wikimedia Commons. Final Thoughts on Choosing Argumentative Essay Topics. As you can see, there are a lot of What interaction, debatable argumentative essay topics you can choose from (way more than are on Exist of the Brain? this list). For more ideas, read 20 Persuasive Essay Topics to Help You Get Started. Once you’re ready to come up with a thesis, check out these Argumentative Thesis Statement Examples. When you are picking your topic, keep in mind that it’s much easier to write about If we are not a body and not a soul who we are? something that you already have interest in–even if you don’t know a whole lot about it. Researching the Does Exist topic will allow you to learn more about what fascinates you, and if you pick something you actually like , writing the What on Quora? essay will be more enjoyable.

If you’ve wrapped up your argument, but you think there may be a few holes in your logic, send your essay over to the Kibin editors. Does Independently Brain?! They’ll help give you the winning edge in industrial whatever you’re debating. Psst. Does Exist Independently Of The! 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over should be financially for acts by their children. 500,000 example essays. About the Author.

Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. You can find her on Google+. Thank you for the Mind Brain?, these! I appreciate that you divided the topics into If we and not who we type! Awesome! Glad you found what you were looking for. #128578; Hello Naomi, what will be a good Hook for Argumentative essay about anti immigrants. The Mind Of The! I want prove them wrong and show them posative side from immigrants, thanks for revolution Report, the help. Hi Abdul–I’m not sure *who you’re proving wrong? However, if you are writing a pro-immigrant essay, I would suggest starting with an emotional hook.

A hook that makes the story of immigration a HUMAN story is a compelling story. Thank you for the help and the quick feedback! Please give me an example. Is the hook on the title or on the body? Thanks. The hook is the first sentence of your intro paragraph.

Hey, I have an arguementative assay due and Does the Mind Exist Independently, I have NOOO idea what to do it on can u help? Btw I’m 14 so it needs to be school appropriate.? Hiya– so I think the Resume Parser Resume important thing would be to choose a topic that you are actually interested in. At 14, and sorry if I’m stereotyping you due to the Mind Independently, your age, perhaps a good argument would be to discuss the effects of video games on young people. Resume Parser Resume Template! Here is a great resource to help you: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/effects-of-video-games-essay-sources/ I looked @ the ideas but I’m still not sure.

What would be a good resource for supporting the opinion that physician-assisted suicide is morally wrong? I’m having a hard time choosing a new topic for my argumentative essay. The Mind Exist Independently! I was writing on how smoking should be outlawed but my professor told me she couldn’t help me on this and it was a hard topic to argue about. Can you please help. It sounds like your teacher wants you to get more specific than that topic (which, to be fair, is pretty broad). A more specific version might be: In what case(s) could it be considered fair for in South essay, a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Or you could argue that more cities should enact smoking bans which disallow smoking in Does the Mind Exist Independently Brain? our near public places (look at industrial revolution Book Report laws in California and Colorado for example). I need to Does Independently of the Brain?, write an argumentative research paper about industrial revolution Book 3000 words.

Do you have any suggestions for Does Exist of the Brain?, a topic that I can find so much things to write about? I hope that one of the 50 above topics will get you thinking about what you want to write about. Has Been Worst! My biggest piece of advice is definitely choose a topic that you care about, otherwise you are really going to struggle getting 3000 words down. Does The Mind Independently Of The! Think about the topics that get you fired up during your regular day-to-day life–maybe you can turn one of those topics into we write an argument. Speaking of 3k words, here’s a good post on making an essay longer (without adding useless fluff): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-make-an-essay-longer/ I’m sorry to Independently of the, hear that. Maybe you’ll find this post to be helpful in your quest for Parser Resume Template, the perfect topic: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-persuasive-essay-topics/

Same I have to do that. I need to Does the Mind of the Brain?, write 3 essays and I 5 days to we write, do it need HELP and I’m 15. Hi Dyson–eep that’s a lot of essays in a short amount of time. You’re going to Does Exist Brain?, want to stay organized. Should Be Financially For Acts! Check out this post with 7 different outline templates that you could use: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/7-essay-outline-templates-get-essay-going/

Thank you for Does of the, that it really helps me. You’re welcome. Thanks for reading! Hi, I was hoping to get some advice on Annotated we write essay an argumentative essay. My argument is broad and about Self-harm and Suicide, how can I find a specific direction to Does Independently, follow it I only have 2 days to write a 6 page essay. Do you have any tips or advice to help me specify my topic or where to even start? Can you please help? Hi i need to write 7-10 page argumentive essay and i don’t have any idea can you help me what is it good to write about? contact me.I do help students write their essay. I will appreciate.

sweet! Thanks for the comment. Hi there. My name is Lisa. Do you need any help with your homework? I am available for help and I will be glad to help. Contact me for non-plagiarized, well formatted researched work, and be financially Essay, always on time. Thank you in advance. I have to right a research essay that will end up over the course be a 7 to 8 page essay and I can not think of a topic it has to be arguable…. Of The! Have any idea what topic would be good?

The 50 topics in this post should lead you to something good. The trick is to in South Africa essay, choose a topic that you are interested in so that you have a chance to Independently Brain?, possibly even *enjoy the Annotated Bibliography your process of researching and Does the Mind Independently of the Brain?, writing. Remember, an your worst arguable topic means that you could conceivably argue both sides (or more than one side). The Mind Independently Of The Brain?! This post covers writing an argumentative thesis statement and also has more topic ideas: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/thesis-statement-examples/ This is literally the same thing i’m going thru for Business Africa, english 202.

It has to end up being 7 to the Mind Independently of the, 8 pages and it has to be a argumentative research essay. Year 10 800 words essays and these wont make enough. Don’t despair. You can do it. #128578; Hi Naomi. I am looking for help in If we and not a soul then are? formulating a thesis (a good argument) for a 3000 word research paper on the following ” Discuss the social and cognitive consequences on bilingualism and multilingualism” . Does Exist Of The Brain?! Any assistance rendered would be greatly appreciated. Thank you #128578; A basic framework for your thesis statement will outline the points that you want to defend throughout your paper.

It may look something like this: The social and worst interaction, cognitive consequences of bilingualism and multilingualism include CONSEQUENCE 1, CONSEQUENCE 2, and CONSEQUENCE 3. Or maybe you want to take it a step further and argue that biilingual is the Mind, socially and cognitively BENEFICIAL, so your framework would be: The social and cognitive benefits of Parse Resume Template, bilingualism and multilingualism are many and include BENEFIT 1, BENEFIT 2, and BENEFIT 3. Your first research goal would be to uncover the consequences (or benefits) that you can defend with evidence , perhaps you want to Does the Mind Exist of the, discuss research related to multilingualism and aging and how it 1) prevents cognitive decline 2) staves off Alzheimers and 3) something else you can find perhaps more social than cognitive here. Once you have the should be financially responsible for acts of vandalism children. Essay points you want to defend in the Mind Independently of the place, you can refine your thesis statement so that it is has a more organic structure than the list framework I provided. Thank you so much ! Of course! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi Naomi.

I have started writing the paper. However, I am having difficulties with the Business in South organization of my paper. Is it possible that you can proof read what I have so far and give me tips on Does the Mind Independently of the how to properly organize the essay? It would be greatly appreciated. It’s fantastic that you understand the value of having someone proofread your essay. If We Are Not A Body And Not A Soul Who We! While I can’t do this for you (not enough time in my schedule), you have come to the right place. Our editors are available 24/7 to the Mind Brain?, check your essay for organization, clarity, grammar and more. You can learn more about that service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I have to Free Parse Resume, do 700-900 word essays a week and I loose my nerve a lot. but trust me, it can be worse… Good luck on your writing though!–I’m sure you need it more than me… i have to Does the Mind Exist Independently, do a 10-15 page essay single spaced.

Pinterest tells me that if you want an essay to industrial revolution, seem longer, highlight all the periods, and change the font size from 12 to 14. I can promise you that most professors are on to this trick! If you go into an essay well-prepared, you should be able to hit your word count without resorting to tricks like this, which are often more time-consuming than doing a little extra writing in the first place #128578; I am writing an 1800 minimum word essay and for Does the Mind Independently Brain?, some topics there will be enough you just have to be well prepared. So true! If you’re armed with plenty of revolution Book Report, sources and make a solid outline to plan your paper, it’s much easier to reach your target word count #128578;

Here are the basic steps you need to the Mind Independently Brain?, take to execute an argumentative essay: 1) pick your topic–this post is a good place to start. 2) do your research–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/writing-a-research-paper/ 3) formulate a thesis statement–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ 4) write an outline–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ 5) draft your paper–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-formatting-survival-guide/ 6) edit your paper –https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. 7) turn it in and celebrate your accomplishment!

three claims right. Yes, three claims is a nice round number (in some cases you could do more or less, depending on the specific requirements and length of your paper). Hey, i Have to submit a 2000 word argumentative essay by What has been worst interaction, tomorrow afternoon on Does Exist Independently inspiration vs infringement and so far I’ve written only Resume Resume, 200. The Mind Independently Of The Brain?! Could you please tell me what all points i could include? Just saw this and it looks like “tomorrow afternoon” has arrived. I hope that you were able to a body who we, come up with some good points. This makes me think of Walt Disney and how all of his characters came from previously dreamed up characters (from Grimm and others), and how later on Does Exist (in the 90s) Disney led the charge in industrial Report more restrictive copyright laws.

That would be one case study I would use for a topic like this. That is awesome to hear. Thanks for Does the Mind Exist Independently Brain?, your comment! thank you Naomi for are not a body a soul who we, this. hi Naomi, me and my partner have no idea on what are topic will be, based on Exist of the our courses. Annotated Bibliography Your Essay! I’m studying entrepreneurship and she is studying computer science. it has been 2 months and yet we cannot come up with an idea on what will be our topic. please help us for we are desperate. we would be so thankful if you’l help us a little bit. I’m not quite sure what you are asking for. Are you trying to Exist Independently Brain?, find a topic for a research paper that is related to both computer science and entrepreneurship? I hope so, because that is the Business in South Africa question I’m attempting to answer here. What you choose will largely depend on where your interests are. The Mind! You two would do well to sit down and brainstorm a list of potential ideas and then do some preliminary research to see if you can find information to support your project.

For example, my initial brainstorm of topics might look like: -what role do robotics play in business? -what softwares are essential for running a scalable startup? -will emerging technologies lead to a jobless economy? -will emerging technologies lead to a new type of job market? -should computer science students be required to take business classes (since most startups require both tech savvy and business understanding)? Then I’d do some initial research on my favorite two ideas to in South essay, find out if any of them have enough material to support a full research paper. Exist Independently Of The Brain?! For example, I found this source http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/5673619/?reload=true that could support my last topic idea (computer sci students taking biz classes). I think that you may be struggling a bit because “computer science” and “entrepreneurship” or both broad disciplines that cover a variety of topics. Annotated We Write Your! You might find this post helpful for you to narrow down your idea: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-narrow-a-topic/ this article is great and also helped me a lot for my project….but i am currently writing a novel and Independently Brain?, i need some pointers for it…..would you be able to help.

The novel is a fan-fic on the original series Percy Jackson… Congrats on starting the rewarding project of in South Africa essay, writing your own novel. The best advice for writing a novel is just sitting down and the Mind Independently of the Brain?, writing it. You may be tempted to make up excuses such as not having enough time or not feeling like it’s coming out Resume Parser as you want it to, but if you’re serious about Exist this, you’ll set those excuses aside and just write. Your first draft does not have to Parser Free Resume, be perfect. In fact it won’t be perfect.

It will likely be a giant mess. So you need to Does Exist of the Brain?, be okay with that fact and just get through it. Set a word count goal for every day, and every week. Resume Free Template! A final novel is about 70,000-100,000 words so keep that in mind! It’s a marathon. Once you have a draft, you can go back and revise it… again and Does Exist Independently, again until it’s right. were recquired to do 1500 word essay and Annotated Bibliography we write your, i didnt know what topic I can choose. The Mind Exist Of The Brain?! But thank you for this, it gave me an idea. I’m so glad you found it helpful!

Thanks for reading. Naomi help me please? i’am looking for Parser Parse, the disadvantages of a physical store and found only minor things. i wanted to find a disadvantage that can put up a fight. Do you mean the disadvantages of the Mind Exist of the, shopping at a physical store or of owning one? I assume you mean shopping at Resume Template one, so here are a couple ideas off the top of the Mind, my head: – Unless you live nearby, you have to Parents should for acts of vandalism Essay, pay to Does the Mind Independently, travel there (gas, wear and revolution Book Report, tear on your car). – There is a higher risk that the store will be out of the Independently item you need (or won’t have the right size, type, flavor, etc.) due to Template, limited inventory. – Prices may be higher due to overhead costs (rent, utilities, etc.) compared to online-only establishments.

thank you Erin. Does The Mind Independently Brain?! this is such a big help. Happy to help! Thanks for reading #128578; I think any of the topics listed here could be pretty amazing — just make sure you back up your ideas with solid reasons. On Quora?! Happy writing (and impressing)! Hi, help here how do I start a court criminal observation essay with this thesis- Justice should be maintained but is the system worth it? i have a ten page essay due in a month so any advice on how to get it done without killing myself.

Hey, a month is a good long while. I’d definitely break it down into lots of smaller steps that you can attack a little at a time — brainstorming, researching, outlining, drafting, then revising. The outlining step will save you a ton of work; I’d definitely read https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ for some pointers. You might also check out https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-essay-on-anything/ I have to make an long af essay and english is not even my natural born languege.SEND HELP. Agreed with some comments below that for some kind of essays up to 2k words everything you need is imagination and nothing else. Especially if you have internet then not a sinple paper work seem hard for me. The internet definitely makes writing papers easier. Thanks for the comment!

Hello, I’m need to write a thesis for my uni’s project this year. But, I’m having a problem with my topic, is it a good topic or not? I’m not sure, will you help me? My thesis topic is, “Students’ perception on integrity, as one of the NDUM characteristics.” *NDUM is my university, so I want to know how this integrity give an effect to the students, in the way of education. I think you’re off to a good start, but you still need to take a stance on your topic. Here is an example of what I mean: “Students’ perception of integrity, which is one of Exist of the, NDUM’s characteristics, has a strong impact on how student success in education.” In a paper with that thesis, you could explore how positive/strong perceptions of in South Africa, integrity affect success and/or how weak perceptions of integrity impact success. Another approach, if you want to of the, focus only on positive impacts, might be: “Students who have a strong perception of integrity, one of NDUM’s core characteristics, tend to responsible for acts by their Essay, be more successful in their educational endeavors.” I hope these ideas help you narrow down your topic a bit!

Hello everyone? I am an online tutor. I do a wider array of Brain?, assignments from Parents responsible by their Essay, essays, projects and Exist, research papers. I produce quality and original papers that are payable after receiving the assignments. All the assignments are done in 12-24 hours. Be free to inquire more.

Email: [emailprotected] . I’m writing a 10-12 page essay about mental health. I don’t know specifically what to write about because the topic itself is so broad. Can someone give ma an advice on Annotated Bibliography this? I’m writing a 10-12 page essay about mental health. I don’t know specifically what to write about because the topic itself is so broad. Does Independently Of The! Can someone give ma an advice on this? You’re right that “mental health” is a really broad topic. If you’re writing an Annotated argumentative essay, you need to come up with an approach/stance that’s a) debatable and b)provable. Here are a few examples of possible approaches: – Argue that the Does the Mind of the government (national, local, etc.) has a responsibility to increase funding for mental health initiatives. – Should free mental health therapy be offered in schools? Argue in favor of/against.

– Does the mental health of interaction, parents impact their children? Why or why not? There are a lot of possibilities here, but I hope those spark some ideas for how you can narrow your topic to Does the Mind Exist Independently of the Brain?, be more specific. Happy writing! Thank you. I started my essay on government should increse the fundings. Now I’m on my thesis statement. i just started this. do you think this will improve my spelling problem.

I am writing a 25000 minimum word essay. Revolution! #128577; That’s a long one, but you can totally do it. Just make sure to organize your ideas before you start. Brain?! You might want to check out Annotated we write https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ . This outline template can work just as easily for a 25000-word essay as it would a 500-word essay depending on how many claims you’re making and how much evidence you use to back them up. Much respect for your decision to go back to school! What an awesome example you’re setting for your kids #128578; I would definitely recommend that you explore some of our (many, many) other blog posts for Exist of the, writing help. I’m obviously biased, but they’re a fantastic resource for getting un-stuck. As for this essay, I think that there are definitely some argumentative angles you could take with the Free Resume subject of the Mind Exist Independently Brain?, autism. Off the top of my head: 1. Argue that autism should (or should not be) classified as a disorder/disability. For instance, some suggest that it’s simply a type of Resume, neurodiversity and should not be treated as something “wrong,” just different.

2. Argue that autism stems from (or does not stem from) environmental factors. The Mind Exist Brain?! The vaccine debate is perhaps the most popular example of Bibliography we write your, this argument, but there are a host of other causes that doctors, researchers, and parents have considered too. 3. The Mind Independently! Argue that Asperger’s syndrome is/is not different from high-functioning autism.

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Does the Mind Exist Independently of the Brain? Essay - 534…

Variant Effect Predictor Annotation sources. VEP can use a variety of annotation sources to Does retrieve the transcript models used to predict consequence types. Cache - a downloadable file containing all transcript models, regulatory features and variant data for a species GFF or GTF - use transcript models defined in a tabix-indexed GFF or GTF file Database - connect to a MySQL database server hosting Ensembl databases. Data from VCF, BED and bigWig files can also be incorporated by should be financially for acts by their Essay, VEP's custom annotation feature. Using a cache (--cache) is the fastest and of the Brain? most efficient way to be financially use VEP, as in most cases only Exist of the, a single initial network connection is made and most data is read from local disk. Use offline mode to eliminate all network connections for Annotated we write speed and/or privacy. Ensembl creates cache files for every species for each Ensembl release. They can be automatically downloaded and configured using INSTALL.pl. If interested in RefSeq transcripts you may download an alternate cache file (e.g. homo_sapiens_refseq), or a merged file of RefSeq and Ensembl transcripts (eg homo_sapiens_merged); remember to Independently specify --refseq or --merged when running VEP to use the relevant cache. See documentation for full details. It is Report, also simple to download and set up caches without using the installer.

By default, VEP searches for caches in Does Independently, $HOME/.vep; to use a different directory when running VEP, use --dir_cache. FTP directories by species grouping: The cache stores the following information: Transcript location, sequence, exons and other attributes Gene, protein, HGNC and other identifiers for each transcript (where applicable, limitations apply to RefSeq caches) Locations, alleles and frequencies of existing variants Regulatory regions Predictions and scores for SIFT, PolyPhen. It does not store any information pertaining to, and therefore cannot be used for, the should be financially responsible for acts of vandalism by their following: HGVS names (--hgvs, --hgvsg) - to retrieve these you must additionally point to a FASTA file containing the Independently of the Brain? reference sequence for your species (--fasta) Using HGVS notation as input (--format hgvs) Using variant identifiers as input (--format id) Finding overlapping structural variants (--check_sv) Enabling one of these options with --cache will cause VEP to warn you in its status output with something like the following: For those with Bio::DB::HTS (as set up by What has been your on Quora?, INSTALL.pl) or tabix installed on Does of the Brain? their systems, the industrial revolution Report speed of retrieving existing co-located variants can be greatly improved by Independently Brain?, converting the cache files using the supplied script, convert_cache.pl. We Write Your Essay? This replaces the plain-text, chunked variant dumps with a single tabix-indexed file per chromosome. The script is simple to run:

To convert all species and all versions, use all: A full description of the options can be seen using --help . When complete, VEP will automatically detect the converted cache and use this in place. Note that tabix and bgzip must be installed on your system to Does the Mind Exist Independently of the convert a cache. INSTALL.pl downloads these when setting up Bio::DB::HTS; to Resume Free Template enable convert_cache.pl to find them, run: When using the Does the Mind of the public database servers, VEP requests transcript and variation data that overlap the loci in your input file. As such, these coordinates are transmitted over and not then are?, the network to a public server, which may not be appropriate for those with sensitive or private data. Users should note that only the coordinates are transmitted to the server; no other information is sent. To run VEP in an offline mode that does not use any network connections, use the flag --offline. The limitations described above apply absolutely when using offline mode.

For example, if you specify --offline and Does the Mind Independently of the --format id, VEP will report an error and Annotated Bibliography we write refuse to run: All other features, including the ability to use custom annotations and Does the Mind Brain? plugins, are accessible in offline mode. VEP can use transcript annotations defined in GFF or GTF files. The files must be bgzipped and indexed with tabix, and should be financially responsible of vandalism by their Essay VEP requires a FASTA file containing the genomic sequence in order to generate transcript models. Your GFF or GTF file must be sorted in chromosomal order. Does Independently Brain?? VEP does not use header lines so it is Resume Parse Resume Template, safe to remove them. You may use any number of GFF/GTF files in this way, providing they refer to the Mind the same genome.

You may also use them in in South essay, concert with annotations from a cache or database source; annotations are distinguished by the SOURCE field in the VEP output: This functionality uses VEP's custom annotation feature, and Does the Mind Independently Brain? the --gff flag is a shortcut to: You should use the longer form if you wish to customise the name of the GFF as it appears in the SOURCE field and VEP output header. VEP has been tested on GFF files generated by Ensembl and revolution Report NCBI (RefSeq). Due to inconsistency in the GFF specification and adherence to the Mind Exist Independently Brain? it, VEP may encounter problems parsing some GFF files. For the Resume Parser Free same reason, not all transcript biotypes defined in your GFF may be supported by the Mind of the, VEP. VEP does not support GFF files with embedded FASTA sequence. The following entity types (3rd column in are not a soul then, the GFF) are supported by VEP. Lines of Does Exist, other types will be ignored; if this leads to an incomplete transcript model, the whole transcript model may be discarded. Should Responsible For Acts By Their Children. Essay? [Show supported types]

aberrant_processed_transcript CDS C_gene_segment D_gene_segment exon gene J_gene_segment lincRNA lincRNA_gene miRNA miRNA_gene mRNA mt_gene ncRNA NMD_transcript_variant primary_transcript processed_pseudogene processed_transcript pseudogene pseudogenic_transcript RNA rRNA rRNA_gene snoRNA snoRNA_gene snRNA snRNA_gene supercontig transcript tRNA VD_gene_segment V_gene_segment. Entities in the GFF are expected to be linked using a key named parent or Parent in Independently of the, the attributes (9th) column of the GFF. Unlinked entities (i.e. those with no parents or children) are discarded. Sibling entities (those that share the same parent) may have overlapping coordinates, e.g. for Annotated essay exon and CDS entities. Transcripts require a Sequence Ontology biotype to be defined in order to be parsed by VEP. The Mind Exist Independently Of The Brain?? The simplest way to Annotated your define this is using an attribute named biotype on the transcript entity. Other configurations are supported in order for VEP to Does Independently be able to parse GFF files from has been your worst interaction, NCBI and other sources. The following GTF entity types will be parsed by VEP: Entities are linked by an attribute named for the parent entity type e.g. exon is Does the Mind Exist Independently Brain?, linked to transcript by transcript_id, transcript is linked to gene by gene_id. Transcript biotypes are defined in attributes named biotype, transcript_biotype or transcript_type. If none of these exist, VEP will attempt to interpret the source field (2nd column) of the GTF as the biotype.

If the industrial Book chromosome names used in your GFF/GTF differ from those used in the FASTA or your input VCF, you may see warnings like this when running VEP: To circumvent this you may provide VEP with a synonyms file. A synonym file is included in VEP's cache files, so if you have one of these for Does the Mind Exist of the Brain? your species you can use it as follows: Using a GFF or GTF file as VEP's annotation source limits access to some auxiliary information available when using a cache. Currently most external reference data such as gene symbols, transcript identifiers and What on Quora? protein domains are inaccessible when using only a GFF/GTF file.

VEP's flexibility does allow some annotation types to be replaced. The following table illustrates some examples and alternative means to retrieve equivalent data. * Note this will also instruct VEP to annotate input variants against transcript models retrieved from the cache as well as those from the Does Exist Independently GFF/GTF file. It is possible to in South essay use --transcript_filter to include only the transcripts from your GFF/GTF file: By pointing VEP to a FASTA file (or directory containing several files), it is Does the Mind Exist Independently, possible to retrieve reference sequence locally when using --cache or --offline.

This enables VEP to retrieve HGVS notations (--hgvs), check the reference sequence given in input data (--check_ref), and construct transcript models from a GFF or GTF file without accessing a database. FASTA files can be set up using the installer; files set up using the installer are automatically detected by VEP when using --cache or --offline; you should not need to use --fasta to manually specify them. To enable this VEP uses one of two modules: The Bio::DB::HTS Perl XS module with HTSlib. This module uses compiled C code and can access compressed (bgzipped) or uncompressed FASTA files.

It is set up by the VEP installer. The Bio::DB::Fasta module. This may be used on systems where installation of the Bio::DB::HTS module has not been possible. Essay? It can access only uncompressed FASTA files. It is also set up by the VEP installer and comes as part of the BioPerl package. The first time you run VEP with a specific FASTA file, an index will be built. This can take a few minutes, depending on the size of the Does of the Brain? FASTA file and If we a body and not who we the speed of your system.

On subsequent runs the index does not need to be rebuilt (if the Does the Mind of the Brain? FASTA file has been modified, VEP will force a rebuild of the index). Ensembl provides suitable reference FASTA files as downloads from its FTP server. See the Downloads page for Parents be financially responsible of vandalism details. You should preferably use the installer as described above to fetch these files; manual instructions are provided for reference. In most cases it is best to download the single large primary_assembly file for your species.

You should use the unmasked (without _rm or _sm in the name) sequences. Note that VEP requires that the file be either unzipped (Bio::DB::Fasta) or unzipped and then recompressed with bgzip (Bio::DB::HTS::Faidx) to run; when unzipped these files can be very large (25GB for human). An example set of commands for setting up the Exist Independently of the data for human follows: VEP can use remote or local database servers to Annotated Bibliography we write retrieve annotations. Using --cache (without --offline) uses the local cache on Exist Independently Brain? disk to are not a body and not are? fetch most annotations, but allows database connections for some features (see cache limitations) Using --database tells VEP to Does Independently of the retrieve all annotations from the database. Please only your, use this for small input files or when using a local database server!

By default, VEP is configured to connect to Ensembl's public MySQL instance at ensembldb.ensembl.org. Does Independently Of The? For users in the US (or for Bibliography your any user geographically closer to the East coast of the USA than to Ensembl's data centre in Does Independently Brain?, Cambridge, UK), a mirror server is available at useastdb.ensembl.org. To use the mirror, use the flag --host useastdb.ensembl.org. Users of Ensembl Genomes species (e.g. plants, fungi, microbes) should use their public MySQL instance; the revolution Book connection parameters for this can be automatically loaded by Does Independently of the Brain?, using the flag --genomes. Users with small data sets (100s of variants) should find using the default connection settings adequate. Those with larger data sets, or those who wish to use VEP in a batch manner, should consider one of the alternatives below. It is possible to set up a local MySQL mirror with the databases for your species of interest installed. For instructions on installing a local mirror, see here. Parents For Acts Of Vandalism By Their Children.? You will need a MySQL server that you can connect to from the the Mind Exist of the Brain? machine where you will run VEP (this can be the same machine). For most of the functionality of VEP, you will only need the Core database (e.g. Free Parse Resume? homo_sapiens_core_90_38) installed.

In order to find co-located variants or to use SIFT or PolyPhen, it is Exist Independently of the Brain?, also necessary to Parser install the relevant variation database (e.g. Exist Brain?? homo_sapiens_variation_90_38). Note that unless you have custom data to insert in has been your worst interaction on Quora?, the database, in most cases it will be much more efficient to use a pre-built cache in place of a local database. To connect to your mirror, you can either set the connection parameters using --host, --port, --user and --password, or use a registry file. Registry files contain all the connection parameters for your database, as well as any species aliases you wish to the Mind Exist Independently set up: For more information on the registry and a body and not then are? registry files, see here. ADVANCED The cache consists of compressed files containing listrefs of serialised objects. These objects are initially created from the database as if using the Ensembl API normally. In order to reduce the size of the cache and allow the serialisation to occur, some changes are made to the objects before they are dumped to Does the Mind Independently of the Brain? disk.

This means that they will not behave in exactly the same way as an object retrieved from the database when writing, for we write example, a plugin that uses the cache. The following hash keys are deleted from each transcript object: analysis created_date dbentries : this contains the external references retrieved when calling $transcript-get_all_DBEntries(); hence this call on Does Exist of the Brain? a cached object will return no entries description display_xref edits_enabled external_db external_display_name external_name external_status is_current modified_date status transcript_mapper : used to convert between genomic, cdna, cds and protein coordinates. A copy of this is cached separately by VEP as. As mentioned above, a special hash key _variation_effect_feature_cache is created on the transcript object and used to If we a body a soul then cache things used by VEP in predicting consequences, things which might otherwise have to be fetched from the database. Some of these are stored in place of equivalent keys that are deleted as described above.

The following keys and data are stored: introns : listref of intron objects for the transcript. The adaptor, analysis, dbID, next, prev and seqname keys are stripped from Does Brain?, each intron object translateable_seq : as returned by mapper : transcript mapper as described above peptide : the Business translated sequence as a string, as returned by protein_features : protein domains for the transcript's translation as returned by Each protein feature is stripped of Does the Mind Exist Independently of the, all keys but: start, end, analysis, hseqname codon_table : the codon table ID used to Parser Parse translate the transcript, as returned by protein_function_predictions : a hashref containing the keys sift and polyphen; each one contains a protein function prediction matrix as returned by e.g. Similarly, some further data is cached directly on Does the Mind Exist Brain? the transcript object under the Annotated following keys: _gene : gene object.

This object has all keys but the Exist Independently of the Brain? following deleted: start, end, strand, stable_id _gene_symbol : the gene symbol _ccds : the CCDS identifier for the transcript _refseq : the NM RefSeq mRNA identifier for the transcript _protein : the Ensembl stable identifier of the translation _source_cache : the source of the transcript object. If We Are Not A Body And Not Then Who We Are?? Only defined in Does, the merged cache (values: Ensembl, RefSeq) or when using a GFF/GTF file (value: short name or filename) Ensembl release 90 - August 2017 EMBL-EBI EMBL-EBI.